Renal vascular effects of frusemide in the rat: influence of salt loading and the role of angiotensin II.Exp Physiol. 2001 Sep; 86(5):611-6.EP
We showed recently that post-frusemide (furosemide) natriuresis was associated with a major depression of medullary circulation. In the present study, prior to administration of frusemide the tubular transport of NaCl was modified by loading the animals with 5% saline to elucidate a possible interrelation between the tubular and vascular effects of the drug. Moreover, a possible involvement of the renin-angiotensin system was examined by pharmacological blockade using captopril, an inhibitor of angiotensin converting enzyme (1 mg x kg(-1), I.V.), or losartan, a selective inhibitor of angiotensin AT1 receptor (10 mg x kg(-1), I.V.). The effects of frusemide (0.25 mg x kg(-1) I.V., then the same dose given over 1 h) on renal medullary and cortical circulation (using laser-Doppler flowmetry) and renal excretion of sodium (U(Na)V), water and total solutes were measured in anaesthetised rats. With no pre-treatment, frusemide decreased the medullary flow (36.6 +/- 6.0%) significantly more than the cortical flow (10.1 +/- 1.0%; P < 0.001). The difference between the medulla and cortex was not significant in rats which showed high U(Na)V after hypertonic saline loading (2.0 +/- 0.4 vs. 0.4 +/- 0.1 micromol x min(-1) in non-loaded rats): 21.1 +/- 3.9% and 15.8 +/- 1.5%, respectively. At very high U(Na)V (9.5 +/- 1.1 micromol x min(-1)) the post-frusemide decrease in blood flow tended to be smaller in the medulla (7.6 +/- 7.7%) than in the cortex (16.2 +/- 2.6%). The fall in medullary blood flow was attenuated by pre-treatment with captopril (22.0 +/- 3.3%) and abolished by pre-treatment with losartan (2.8 +/- 11.8%). The decrease in cortical blood flow was not changed by hypertonic saline or angiotensin II blockers. The abolition of the post-frusemide depression of medullary blood flow by previous salt loading confirms the proposed link between tubular transport status and vasoconstriction. A similar modification of the response by blockade of the renin-angiotensin system suggests that the system is involved in the mechanism of medullary vasoconstriction.