Eight novel mutations of the androgen receptor gene in patients with androgen insensitivity syndrome.J Hum Genet. 2001; 46(10):560-5.JH
Androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) is an X-linked genetic disorder of male sexual differentiation caused by mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene. A reliable genotype-phenotype correlation in these patients does not exist as yet. Here we report the molecular studies performed on eight individuals with AIS. Exon-specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR), single-strand conformation polymorphism, and sequencing analyses, were performed in exons 2 to 8 of the AR gene. In one case, total cellular RNA was extracted from genital skin fibroblasts and reverse transcriptase-PCR was performed. Six different point mutations leading to amino acid substitutions (P682T, Q711E, G743E, F827V, H874R, D879Y), one splice-junction mutation (g-->c at +5, exon 6/intron 6), and a missense mutation without amino acid substitution (S888S) were identified. All mutations, including a de novo mutation, were previously undescribed on the steroid binding domain. Of the eight mutations identified, four led to a complete female phenotype (codons 743, 827, 874 and the donor splice site +5), two were detected in phenotypic females with partial virilization (codons 682 and 711), and two were present in phenotypic male subjects with undervirilized external genitalia, thus indicating that all of these sites determine AR functional activity.