Hyperhomocysteinemia is related to residual glomerular filtration and folate, but not to methylenetetrahydrofolate-reductase and methionine synthase polymorphisms, in supplemented end-stage renal disease patients undergoing hemodialysis.Clin Chem Lab Med 2001; 39(8):747-52CC
Glomerular filtration is one of the major determinants of plasma total homocysteine (tHcy). To evaluate the respective roles of residual glomerular filtration (by measuring a specific protein marker, cystatin C), genetic polymorphisms and nutritional status in tHcy blood levels in end-stage renal disease patients (ESRD) under hemodialysis and supplemented with folate, we measured tHcy, folate, vitamin B12 (B12), creatinine, cystatin C, albumin and C-reactive protein and determined the polymorphism of methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) (C677T and A1289C) and of methionine synthase (MS) (A2756G) in 114 ESRD patients before hemodialysis and 76 control subjects. All patients received a folate supplementation of 700 microg/day. Hyperhomocysteinemia was observed in all patients and exceeded the upper normal limit by 2-fold in 52.4% of the patients. Serum folate was significantly increased and the B12 level was not different from controls. Folate, Cystatin C and creatinine were significantly correlated to tHcy, while no correlation was found between tHcy, albumin and C-reactive protein. No difference in genotype frequency between ESRD patients and controls was found for MTHFR A1289C and MS A2756G. The MTHFR 677TT genotype was less frequent and was associated with a significantly higher tHcy level in patients. Folate and residual glomerular filtration estimated by cystatin C and creatinine levels were two independent determinants of tHcy in ESRD patients. These data suggest that hyperhomocysteinemia is a consequence as well as a complicating factor of renal failure.