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The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

To examine, in free-living adults eating self-selected diets, the effects on plasma cholesterol of substituting saturated fat rich foods with either n-6 polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat rich foods while at the same time adhering to a total fat intake of 30-33% of dietary energy.

DESIGN

Two randomised crossover trials.

SETTING

General community.

SUBJECTS

Volunteer sample of healthy free-living nutrition students at the University of Otago. Trial I, n=29; and trial II, n=42.

INTERVENTIONS

In trials I and II participants were asked to follow for 2(1/2) weeks a diet high in saturated fat yet with a total fat content that conformed to nutrition recommendations (30-33% energy). During the 2(1/2) week comparison diet, saturated fat rich foods were replaced with foods rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fats (trial I) whereas in trial II the replacement foods were rich in monounsaturated fats. Participants were asked to maintain a total fat intake of 30-33% of energy on all diets.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Energy and nutrient intakes, plasma triglyceride fatty acids, and plasma cholesterol.

RESULTS

When replacing saturated fat with either n-6 polyunsaturated fat or monounsaturated fat, total fat intakes decreased by 2.9% energy and 5.1% energy, respectively. Replacing saturated fat with n-6 polyunsaturated fat (trial I) lowered plasma total cholesterol by 19% [from 4.87 (0.88) to 3.94 (0.92) mmol/l, mean (s.d.)], low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 22% [from 2.87 (0.75) to 2.24 (0.67) mmol/l], and high density lipoprotein cholesterol by 14% [from 1.39 (0.36) to 1.19 (0.34) mmol/l], whereas replacing saturated fat with monounsaturated fat (trial II) decreased total cholesterol by 12%, low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 15%, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol by 4%, respectively. The change in the ratio of total to high density lipoprotein cholesterol was similar during trial I and trial II.

CONCLUSIONS

Young adults are very responsive to dietary-induced changes in plasma cholesterol even when an isocaloric replacement of saturated fat with n-6 polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat is not achieved. Replacing saturated fat with either n-6 polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat is equally efficacious at reducing the total to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio.

SPONSORSHIP

University of Otago, Meadow Lea Ltd.

Links

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

    ,

    Source

    MeSH

    Adult
    Cholesterol
    Cholesterol, HDL
    Cholesterol, LDL
    Cross-Over Studies
    Dietary Fats
    Dietary Fats, Unsaturated
    Energy Intake
    Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated
    Fatty Acids, Omega-6
    Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Treatment Outcome
    Triglycerides

    Pub Type(s)

    Clinical Trial
    Journal Article
    Randomized Controlled Trial
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    11593354

    Citation

    Hodson, L, et al. "The Effect of Replacing Dietary Saturated Fat With Polyunsaturated or Monounsaturated Fat On Plasma Lipids in Free-living Young Adults." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 10, 2001, pp. 908-15.
    Hodson L, Skeaff CM, Chisholm WA. The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55(10):908-15.
    Hodson, L., Skeaff, C. M., & Chisholm, W. A. (2001). The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55(10), pp. 908-15.
    Hodson L, Skeaff CM, Chisholm WA. The Effect of Replacing Dietary Saturated Fat With Polyunsaturated or Monounsaturated Fat On Plasma Lipids in Free-living Young Adults. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55(10):908-15. PubMed PMID: 11593354.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of replacing dietary saturated fat with polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat on plasma lipids in free-living young adults. AU - Hodson,L, AU - Skeaff,C M, AU - Chisholm,W A, PY - 1999/04/24/received PY - 2001/03/02/revised PY - 2001/03/06/accepted PY - 2001/10/11/pubmed PY - 2001/11/3/medline PY - 2001/10/11/entrez SP - 908 EP - 15 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 55 IS - 10 N2 - OBJECTIVE: To examine, in free-living adults eating self-selected diets, the effects on plasma cholesterol of substituting saturated fat rich foods with either n-6 polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat rich foods while at the same time adhering to a total fat intake of 30-33% of dietary energy. DESIGN: Two randomised crossover trials. SETTING: General community. SUBJECTS: Volunteer sample of healthy free-living nutrition students at the University of Otago. Trial I, n=29; and trial II, n=42. INTERVENTIONS: In trials I and II participants were asked to follow for 2(1/2) weeks a diet high in saturated fat yet with a total fat content that conformed to nutrition recommendations (30-33% energy). During the 2(1/2) week comparison diet, saturated fat rich foods were replaced with foods rich in n-6 polyunsaturated fats (trial I) whereas in trial II the replacement foods were rich in monounsaturated fats. Participants were asked to maintain a total fat intake of 30-33% of energy on all diets. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Energy and nutrient intakes, plasma triglyceride fatty acids, and plasma cholesterol. RESULTS: When replacing saturated fat with either n-6 polyunsaturated fat or monounsaturated fat, total fat intakes decreased by 2.9% energy and 5.1% energy, respectively. Replacing saturated fat with n-6 polyunsaturated fat (trial I) lowered plasma total cholesterol by 19% [from 4.87 (0.88) to 3.94 (0.92) mmol/l, mean (s.d.)], low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 22% [from 2.87 (0.75) to 2.24 (0.67) mmol/l], and high density lipoprotein cholesterol by 14% [from 1.39 (0.36) to 1.19 (0.34) mmol/l], whereas replacing saturated fat with monounsaturated fat (trial II) decreased total cholesterol by 12%, low density lipoprotein cholesterol by 15%, and high density lipoprotein cholesterol by 4%, respectively. The change in the ratio of total to high density lipoprotein cholesterol was similar during trial I and trial II. CONCLUSIONS: Young adults are very responsive to dietary-induced changes in plasma cholesterol even when an isocaloric replacement of saturated fat with n-6 polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat is not achieved. Replacing saturated fat with either n-6 polyunsaturated or monounsaturated fat is equally efficacious at reducing the total to high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio. SPONSORSHIP: University of Otago, Meadow Lea Ltd. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11593354/The_effect_of_replacing_dietary_saturated_fat_with_polyunsaturated_or_monounsaturated_fat_on_plasma_lipids_in_free_living_young_adults_ L2 - http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601234 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -