Maintenance of cancellous bone in ovariectomized, human parathyroid hormone [hPTH(1-84)]-treated rats by estrogen, risedronate, or reduced hPTH.Bone. 2001 Oct; 29(4):352-60.BONE
This study compares effects of maintenance doses of human parathyroid hormone [hPTH(1-84)], 17beta-estradiol (E2), and risedronate on distal femur bone mineral density and proximal tibia cancellous bone histomorphometry in ovariectomized (ovx), osteopenic rats previously administered a higher dose of hPTH. Nine groups (n = 8) of 3.5-month-old ovx or intact Sprague-Dawley rats were left untreated for 11 weeks to allow for the development of cancellous osteopenia in the ovx groups. Next, the ovx rats received subcutaneous injections of hPTH (75 microg/kg per day, three times per week) or vehicle for 12 weeks. Treatments were then changed to E2 (10 microg/kg per day, two times per week), risedronate (Ris; 3 microg/kg per day, three times per week), low-dose hPTH(1-84) (LowPTH; 25 microg/kg per day, three times per week), or vehicle, and administered for 36 weeks. The intact control group remained untreated for the duration of study. Femora and tibiae were collected at weeks -11 (baseline); 0 (ovx effect); 12 (hPTH effect), and 24, 36, and 48 (maintenance effects). Endpoints evaluated included distal femur bone mineral density (BMD) and proximal tibia cancellous bone volume (BV/TV), osteoclast surface (Oc.S), mineralizing surface (MS), mineral apposition rate (MAR), and bone formation rate (BFR). Ovariectomy had a negative effect on distal femur BMD and proximal tibia BV/TV. Treatment of ovx rats with hPTH for 12 weeks resulted in higher BMD in comparison to intact controls, and higher cancellous BV/TV in comparison to ovx controls. Discontinuation of hPTH resulted in loss of gained BMD within 24 weeks and loss of gained BV/TV within 12 weeks. Treatment of ovx rats with hPTH for 12 weeks followed by E2 treatment left BMD and BV/TV similar to vehicle-treated ovx rats by week 48 (36 weeks after commencement of the E2 maintenance treatment). Maintenance treatment with risedronate resulted in BMD and BV/TV similar to that of intact controls. Maintenance treatment with low-dose hPTH resulted in greater BMD and similar BV/TV in comparison to intact controls. MS and BFR were highest after low-dose hPTH administration. MS and BFR were lowest after E2 or risedronate, whereas Oc.S was lowest after risedronate administration. Thus, in osteopenic rats, the increment in distal femur BMD and proximal tibia BV/TV gained by 12 weeks of hPTH treatment was lost within 24 and 12 weeks of treatment termination, respectively. Low-dose hPTH maintained BMD and BV/TV after hPTH treatment by stimulating bone formation, whereas risedronate maintained BMD and BV/TV by reducing bone resorption. E2 in a maintenance dose failed to maintain BMD and BV/TV after withdrawal of hPTH treatment.