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Laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair in patients with poor esophageal motility or paraesophageal herniation.
Am Surg. 2001 Oct; 67(10):987-91.AS

Abstract

Laparoscopic repair for gastroesophageal reflux disease is now an accepted therapy. However, controversy exists with regard to the choice of operation between complete 360-degree Nissen fundoplication versus partial 270-degree Toupe fundoplication. In addition there is some controversy with regard to the proper choice of operation in patients with poor esophageal motility. Another class of hiatal hernia patients are those patients with paraesophageal herniation. Questions regarding the approach to these patients include whether or not to use a reflux procedure at the time of repair and the role of mesh in repair of these large hernias. This retrospective study was undertaken to compare the results of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and Toupe fundoplication in patients with both normal and abnormal esophageal motility. In addition the subset of patients with paraesophageal herniation was studied in an effort to ascertain the best surgical approach in these patients. In this study a retrospective analysis was performed on 188 consecutive patients during the period 1995 to 2001. All patients who presented with hiatal hernia surgical problems during this period were included. Endoscopy was performed in all patients with esophageal reflux. Manometry was performed in all patients except those presenting as emergency incarcerations. pH probe testing was performed in those patients in whom it was deemed necessary to establish the diagnosis. Upper gastrointestinal radiographs were used to define anatomy in paraesophageal hernia patients when possible. All patients with esophageal reflux were first treated with a trial of medical therapy. Patients with esophageal reflux and normal esophageal motility underwent 360-degree Nissen fundoplication. Those patients with poor esophageal motility (less than 65 mm of mercury) underwent laparoscopic 270-degree Toupe fundoplication. Patients presenting with paraesophageal herniation underwent laparoscopic repair. When possible esophageal manometry was performed on these patients preoperatively and if normal peristalsis was documented a Nissen fundoplication was performed. If poor esophageal motility was documented before surgery a Toupe fundoplication was performed. Mesh reinforcement of the diaphragmatic hiatus was used if necessary to complete a repair without tension. Patients were followed both by their primary gastroenterologist and their surgeon. Follow-up studies including endoscopy, pH probe, and upper gastrointestinal series were used as necessary in the postoperative period to document any problems as they occurred. Of the 188 patients in the study 141 patients underwent Nissen fundoplication, 21 patients underwent Nissen fundoplication and repair of paraesophageal hernia, 15 underwent Toupe fundoplication, seven underwent Toupe and paraesophageal hernia repair, and four paraesophageal hernia repair alone. One hundred eighty-three patients underwent a laparoscopic operation. Five patients of the 188 underwent an initial open operation-two of these patients because of the size of their paraesophageal hernia. Three of these patients had reoperations of remote operations done years before at other institutions. Twenty-two patients with poor esophageal motility (11.7 %) were included in the study. Fifteen patients required Toupe fundoplication whereas seven patients required Toupe fundoplication and repair of paraesophageal hernias. Mesh repair of paraesophageal hernias was accomplished in ten patients. Patients undergoing Toupe fundoplication had a 13 per cent dysphagia rate less than 4 weeks postoperatively and a 0% dysphagia rate greater than four weeks postoperatively. Patients undergoing Nissen fundoplication had a 16 per cent dysphagia rate less than 4 weeks postoperatively, 2 per cent dysphagia rate greater than 4 weeks postoperatively and no dysphagia at 6 weeks postoperatively. Recurrent symptomatic reflux occurred in 1.4 per cent of Nissen fundoplications and 6.7 per cent of Toupe fundoplications. Of Nissen and paraesophageal repairs 14.2 per cent had reflux and 14.3 per cent of Toupe and paraesophageal repairs had recurrent symptomatic reflux. Overall, complication rate was low. Use of mesh to repair large paraesophageal hernias resulted in a recurrence rate of 0 per cent. There was no instance of infection or bowel fistulization related to the use of mesh. We conclude that laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in patients with normal esophageal motility is associated with a low rate of dysphagia and a low rate of recurrent reflux. Toupe fundoplication when used in reflux patients with poor esophageal motility is associated with a low rate of dysphagia and an acceptable rate of recurrent reflux. Laparoscop

Authors+Show Affiliations

Austin Surgeons, PLLC, Texas 78756, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11603559

Citation

Livingston, C D., et al. "Laparoscopic Hiatal Hernia Repair in Patients With Poor Esophageal Motility or Paraesophageal Herniation." The American Surgeon, vol. 67, no. 10, 2001, pp. 987-91.
Livingston CD, Jones HL, Askew RE, et al. Laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair in patients with poor esophageal motility or paraesophageal herniation. Am Surg. 2001;67(10):987-91.
Livingston, C. D., Jones, H. L., Askew, R. E., Victor, B. E., & Askew, R. E. (2001). Laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair in patients with poor esophageal motility or paraesophageal herniation. The American Surgeon, 67(10), 987-91.
Livingston CD, et al. Laparoscopic Hiatal Hernia Repair in Patients With Poor Esophageal Motility or Paraesophageal Herniation. Am Surg. 2001;67(10):987-91. PubMed PMID: 11603559.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Laparoscopic hiatal hernia repair in patients with poor esophageal motility or paraesophageal herniation. AU - Livingston,C D, AU - Jones,H L,Jr AU - Askew,R E,Jr AU - Victor,B E, AU - Askew,R E,Sr PY - 2001/10/18/pubmed PY - 2002/1/5/medline PY - 2001/10/18/entrez SP - 987 EP - 91 JF - The American surgeon JO - Am Surg VL - 67 IS - 10 N2 - Laparoscopic repair for gastroesophageal reflux disease is now an accepted therapy. However, controversy exists with regard to the choice of operation between complete 360-degree Nissen fundoplication versus partial 270-degree Toupe fundoplication. In addition there is some controversy with regard to the proper choice of operation in patients with poor esophageal motility. Another class of hiatal hernia patients are those patients with paraesophageal herniation. Questions regarding the approach to these patients include whether or not to use a reflux procedure at the time of repair and the role of mesh in repair of these large hernias. This retrospective study was undertaken to compare the results of laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication and Toupe fundoplication in patients with both normal and abnormal esophageal motility. In addition the subset of patients with paraesophageal herniation was studied in an effort to ascertain the best surgical approach in these patients. In this study a retrospective analysis was performed on 188 consecutive patients during the period 1995 to 2001. All patients who presented with hiatal hernia surgical problems during this period were included. Endoscopy was performed in all patients with esophageal reflux. Manometry was performed in all patients except those presenting as emergency incarcerations. pH probe testing was performed in those patients in whom it was deemed necessary to establish the diagnosis. Upper gastrointestinal radiographs were used to define anatomy in paraesophageal hernia patients when possible. All patients with esophageal reflux were first treated with a trial of medical therapy. Patients with esophageal reflux and normal esophageal motility underwent 360-degree Nissen fundoplication. Those patients with poor esophageal motility (less than 65 mm of mercury) underwent laparoscopic 270-degree Toupe fundoplication. Patients presenting with paraesophageal herniation underwent laparoscopic repair. When possible esophageal manometry was performed on these patients preoperatively and if normal peristalsis was documented a Nissen fundoplication was performed. If poor esophageal motility was documented before surgery a Toupe fundoplication was performed. Mesh reinforcement of the diaphragmatic hiatus was used if necessary to complete a repair without tension. Patients were followed both by their primary gastroenterologist and their surgeon. Follow-up studies including endoscopy, pH probe, and upper gastrointestinal series were used as necessary in the postoperative period to document any problems as they occurred. Of the 188 patients in the study 141 patients underwent Nissen fundoplication, 21 patients underwent Nissen fundoplication and repair of paraesophageal hernia, 15 underwent Toupe fundoplication, seven underwent Toupe and paraesophageal hernia repair, and four paraesophageal hernia repair alone. One hundred eighty-three patients underwent a laparoscopic operation. Five patients of the 188 underwent an initial open operation-two of these patients because of the size of their paraesophageal hernia. Three of these patients had reoperations of remote operations done years before at other institutions. Twenty-two patients with poor esophageal motility (11.7 %) were included in the study. Fifteen patients required Toupe fundoplication whereas seven patients required Toupe fundoplication and repair of paraesophageal hernias. Mesh repair of paraesophageal hernias was accomplished in ten patients. Patients undergoing Toupe fundoplication had a 13 per cent dysphagia rate less than 4 weeks postoperatively and a 0% dysphagia rate greater than four weeks postoperatively. Patients undergoing Nissen fundoplication had a 16 per cent dysphagia rate less than 4 weeks postoperatively, 2 per cent dysphagia rate greater than 4 weeks postoperatively and no dysphagia at 6 weeks postoperatively. Recurrent symptomatic reflux occurred in 1.4 per cent of Nissen fundoplications and 6.7 per cent of Toupe fundoplications. Of Nissen and paraesophageal repairs 14.2 per cent had reflux and 14.3 per cent of Toupe and paraesophageal repairs had recurrent symptomatic reflux. Overall, complication rate was low. Use of mesh to repair large paraesophageal hernias resulted in a recurrence rate of 0 per cent. There was no instance of infection or bowel fistulization related to the use of mesh. We conclude that laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication in patients with normal esophageal motility is associated with a low rate of dysphagia and a low rate of recurrent reflux. Toupe fundoplication when used in reflux patients with poor esophageal motility is associated with a low rate of dysphagia and an acceptable rate of recurrent reflux. Laparoscop SN - 0003-1348 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11603559/Laparoscopic_hiatal_hernia_repair_in_patients_with_poor_esophageal_motility_or_paraesophageal_herniation_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/hiatalhernia.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -