A solid phase extraction method for the screening and determination of pyrethroid metabolites and organochlorine pesticides in human urine.Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom. 2001; 15(21):2007-13.RC
A screening method has been developed for the determination of 23 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and 3-pyrethroid metabolities [cis- and trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid, cis-3-(2,2-dibromovinyl)-2,2-dimethyl-(1-cyclopropane) carboxylic acid and 3-phenoxybenzoic acid] from human urine. OCPs were directly detected in urine samples while pyrethroid metabolites required acid-induced hydrolysis to convert their conjugates into free acids; all compounds were then cleaned-up/preconcentrated using solid phase extraction. Determination and quantitation was achieved by gas chromatography with a mass spectrometer detector operating in selected ion monitoring mode. Limits of detection varied between 0.1 and 0.3 ng/mL with linear ranges from 0.3 to 700 ng/mL; the precision of the method was high (4.3-7.2%). Recoveries of all analytes from urine samples fortified at levels of 30 ng/mL for each OCP and 15 ng/mL for each pyrethroid metabolite ranged from 88 to 101% (captan gave the lowest recovery). The results obtained from the analysis of real urine samples show the suitability of the proposed method for monitoring people exposed to organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticides.