New perspectives in the management of sigmoid diverticulitis.Panminerva Med 2001; 43(4):289-93PM
The sigmoid colon is the part of the large intestine, which most commonly involved in diverticular disease due to its anatomical properties. Diverticular disease of the colon is being seen with increasing frequency mostly in western countries. Diverticulitis results from inflammation and subsequent perforation of a colonic diverticulum. Mild forms of diverticulitis usually present with gradually increasing symptoms from the lower left quadrant of the abdomen, whereas acute complicated disease is characterised by dramatic onset of abdominal pain, followed by fever within a few hours. The standard treatment for uncomplicated diverticulitis is bowel rest, with liquid diet or intravenous fluids in combination with antibiotics. Prophylactic resection is not to be recommended for patients with diverticular disease, but a high-fibre diet may afford protection by preventing further complications. Patients not responding to conservative treatment within the first 24 hours require further evaluation by computed tomography or ultrasonography. Fistula formation and intestinal obstruction are indications for surgical intervention, although the frequent recurrent attacks, which commonly afflict these patients, are seldom associated with severe complications. Laparoscopic approach has been introduced in the diagnosis and definitive treatment of uncomplicated diverticulitis, with less morbidity and mortality rates, and hospitalisation of the patients and in these terms could be promising in the future.