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Physiological role of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue as an endocrine and secretory organ.

Abstract

The traditional role attributed to white adipose tissue is energy storage, fatty acids being released when fuel is required. The metabolic role of white fat is, however, complex. For example, the tissue is needed for normal glucose homeostasis and a role in inflammatory processes has been proposed. A radical change in perspective followed the discovery of leptin; this critical hormone in energy balance is produced principally by white fat, giving the tissue an endocrine function. Leptin is one of a number of proteins secreted from white adipocytes, which include angiotensinogen, adipsin, acylation-stimulating protein, adiponectin, retinol-binding protein, tumour neorosis factor a, interleukin 6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue factor. Some of these proteins are inflammatory cytokines, some play a role in lipid metabolism, while others are involved in vascular haemostasis or the complement system. The effects of specific proteins maybe autocrine or paracrine, or the site of action maybe distant from adipose tissue. The most recently described adipocyte secretory proteins are fasting-induced adipose factor, a fibrinogen-angiopoietin-related protein, metallothionein and resistin. Resistin is an adipose tissue-specific factor which is reported to induce insulin resistance, linking diabetes to obesity. Metallothionein is a metal-binding and stress-response protein which may have an antioxidant role. The key challenges in establishing the secretory functions of white fat are to identify the complement of secreted proteins, to establish the role of each secreted protein, and to assess the pathophysiological consequences of changes in adipocyte protein production with alterations in adiposity (obesity, fasting, cachexia). There is already considerable evidence of links between increased production of some adipocyte factors and the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity. In essence, white adipose tissue is a major secretory and endocrine organ involved in a range of functions beyond simple fat storage.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo, Blindern, Norway. p_trayhurn@altavista.com

    Source

    MeSH

    Adipose Tissue
    Animals
    Cytokines
    Endocrine Glands
    Energy Metabolism
    Homeostasis
    Hormones
    Humans
    Leptin
    Obesity
    Paracrine Communication
    Protein Biosynthesis
    Proteins

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    11681807

    Citation

    Trayhurn, P, and J H. Beattie. "Physiological Role of Adipose Tissue: White Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine and Secretory Organ." The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, vol. 60, no. 3, 2001, pp. 329-39.
    Trayhurn P, Beattie JH. Physiological role of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue as an endocrine and secretory organ. Proc Nutr Soc. 2001;60(3):329-39.
    Trayhurn, P., & Beattie, J. H. (2001). Physiological role of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue as an endocrine and secretory organ. The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, 60(3), pp. 329-39.
    Trayhurn P, Beattie JH. Physiological Role of Adipose Tissue: White Adipose Tissue as an Endocrine and Secretory Organ. Proc Nutr Soc. 2001;60(3):329-39. PubMed PMID: 11681807.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Physiological role of adipose tissue: white adipose tissue as an endocrine and secretory organ. AU - Trayhurn,P, AU - Beattie,J H, PY - 2001/10/30/pubmed PY - 2002/4/19/medline PY - 2001/10/30/entrez SP - 329 EP - 39 JF - The Proceedings of the Nutrition Society JO - Proc Nutr Soc VL - 60 IS - 3 N2 - The traditional role attributed to white adipose tissue is energy storage, fatty acids being released when fuel is required. The metabolic role of white fat is, however, complex. For example, the tissue is needed for normal glucose homeostasis and a role in inflammatory processes has been proposed. A radical change in perspective followed the discovery of leptin; this critical hormone in energy balance is produced principally by white fat, giving the tissue an endocrine function. Leptin is one of a number of proteins secreted from white adipocytes, which include angiotensinogen, adipsin, acylation-stimulating protein, adiponectin, retinol-binding protein, tumour neorosis factor a, interleukin 6, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and tissue factor. Some of these proteins are inflammatory cytokines, some play a role in lipid metabolism, while others are involved in vascular haemostasis or the complement system. The effects of specific proteins maybe autocrine or paracrine, or the site of action maybe distant from adipose tissue. The most recently described adipocyte secretory proteins are fasting-induced adipose factor, a fibrinogen-angiopoietin-related protein, metallothionein and resistin. Resistin is an adipose tissue-specific factor which is reported to induce insulin resistance, linking diabetes to obesity. Metallothionein is a metal-binding and stress-response protein which may have an antioxidant role. The key challenges in establishing the secretory functions of white fat are to identify the complement of secreted proteins, to establish the role of each secreted protein, and to assess the pathophysiological consequences of changes in adipocyte protein production with alterations in adiposity (obesity, fasting, cachexia). There is already considerable evidence of links between increased production of some adipocyte factors and the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of obesity. In essence, white adipose tissue is a major secretory and endocrine organ involved in a range of functions beyond simple fat storage. SN - 0029-6651 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11681807/Physiological_role_of_adipose_tissue:_white_adipose_tissue_as_an_endocrine_and_secretory_organ_ L2 - https://www.cambridge.org/core/product/identifier/S0029665101000362/type/journal_article DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -