Over-the-counter medications for acute cough in children and adults in ambulatory settings.Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2001; (3):CD001831CD
Acute cough due to upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is a common symptom. Many health practitioners recommend non-prescription over-the-counter (OTC) medicines as a first-line treatment for cough, but there is little evidence as to whether these drugs are effective.
To assess the effects of oral over-the-counter cough preparations for acute cough.
We searched the Cochrane Acute Respiratory Infections Group specialised register, the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE, EMBASE and the UK Department of Health National Research Register and reference lists of articles. We wrote to study investigators and pharmaceutical companies for information on further published or unpublished studies. There were no constraints based on language or publication status.
Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing oral OTC cough preparations with placebo in children and adults suffering from acute cough in ambulatory settings. We considered all cough outcomes (such as frequency and severity, continuous and categorical data, using different ways of measurement). The second outcomes of interest were adverse effects.
DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS
Two investigators screened potentially relevant citations independently. Any differences at any stage of the review were resolved by discussion. We also extracted data and assessed the quality of studies independently. We contacted investigators for additional information and performed quantitative analysis when appropriate data were available.
Twenty two trials (16 on adults, eight in children) involving 4199 people (3716 adults and 483 children) were included. RESULTS OF STUDIES IN ADULTS 1. Antitussives Five trials compared antitussives with placebo. Codeine was no more effective than placebo in reducing cough symptoms. One study favoured dextromethorphan over placebo, whereas a second did not show an effect. Moguisteine was no more effective than placebo apart from a reduction of cough in a subgroup of participants with more severe night cough. 2. Expectorants Two trials compared guaifenesin with placebo. In the larger study, 75 per cent of participants taking guaifenesin stated that the medicine was helpful compared to 31 per cent in the control group (p less than 0.01). In the second study, both groups showed improvement with respect to cough frequency and severity, with no statistically significant differences between groups. 3. Mucolytics One trial compared a mucolytic with placebo. Active treatment reduced cough frequency and symptom scores on day four and eight. 4. Antihistamine-decongestant combinations Two studies compared antihistamine-decongestant combinations with placebo. Antihistamine-decongestant were significantly more effective than placebo (p less than 0.01). 5. Other drug combinations Three studies compared combinations of drugs other than antihistamine-decongestant with placebo. Two studies were effective in reducing cough symptoms, and one study showed relief at night but not during the day. 6. Antihistamines Three trials compared antihistamines with placebo. Antihistamines were no more effective than placebo in relieving cough symptoms. RESULTS OF STUDIES IN CHILDREN 1. Antitussives Antitussives were no more effective than placebo (one study) 2. Expectorants No studies using expectorants met our inclusion criteria. 3. Mucolytics The results of one trial favoured active treatment over placebo from day four until day 10 (p<0.01) 4. Antihistamine-decongestant combinations Two studies showed no difference between anthistamine-decongestant combinations and placebo. 5. Other drug combinations One trial tested two paediatric cough syrups. Compared to placebo, both preparations showed a 'satisfactory response' in 46 per cent and 56 per cent of children compared to 21 per cent of children in the placebo group. 6. Antihistamines In one trial that tested antihistamines active treatment was no more effective than placebo.
There is no good evidence for or against the effectiveness of OTC medicines in acute cough. The results of this review have to be interpreted with caution due to differences in study designs, populations, interventions and outcomes between studies. The numbers of studies in each group were small, and studies often showed conflicting results. Effect sizes in many studies were unclear and it is questionable as to whether all of the positive results are clinically relevant.