Influence of adjunct cultures on ripening of reduced fat Edam cheeses.J Dairy Sci. 2001 Oct; 84(10):2117-24.JD
The influence of four adjunct cultures [Brevibacterium linens (BL2), Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis, Lactobacillus helveticus (LH212), and Lactobacillus reuteri (ATCC 23272)] on chemical and sensory characteristics of reduced fat Edam cheese was studied. The aminopeptidase activity of Lactococcus lactis ssp. diacetylactis was higher than that of Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus reuteri, and Brevibacterium linens, respectively. Mean percent fat and moisture contents of reduced fat cheese were 20.85 +/- 0.69 and 42.95 +/- 0.43, respectively. Percentage of fat and moisture of full fat control cheese were 30.06 +/- 0.78 and 39.11 +/- 0.60. Titratable acidity increased in all cheese with aging while pH initially decreased but increased in cheese after 6 mo aging at 7 degrees C. Lactic acid bacteria counts were on average one log higher for reduced fat cheeses than for full fat control cheese and counts decreasing with aging. Free amino acids (FAA) in cheeses increased with aging, and were higher in reduced fat cheeses than in the full fat control cheese. Reduced fat cheeses containing L. helveticus exhibited the highest FAA content. Descriptive sensory panelists (n = 9) did not detect differences among cheeses after 3 and 6 mo ripening, but aged/developed flavors (fruity, nutty, brothy, sulfur, free fatty acid) and sweetness increased between 3 and 6 mo. Expert panelists (n = 6) detected differences in texture quality among the cheeses. Reduced fat control cheeses and reduced fat cheeses with L. helveticus and L. reuteri received the highest texture quality scores. Addition of L. helveticus and Lc. lactis ssp. diacetylactis, as adjunct cultures to reduced fat Edam cheeses increased proteolysis, while the addition of L. helveticus and L. reuteri increased texture quality of cheeses.