Sequence analysis of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) in Japanese patients with craniosynostosis.J Craniofac Surg. 2001 Nov; 12(6):580-5.JC
Recently, mutations of the fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) genes have been detected in syndromic craniosynostosis. We examined nucleotide sequences of FGFR2 in Japanese craniosynostosis patients (Crouzon syndrome: 9 cases; Apert syndrome: 6 cases; scaphocephaly: 3 cases as non-syndromic patients) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by direct sequencing methods. The results demonstrated FGFR2 heterozygous mutations at codons 252, 290 of exon 7, and at codon 342, 354 of exon 9 in Crouzon syndromes. In Apert syndrome patients, Ser252Trp and Pro253Arg were detected in five and one patients, respectively. No mutation was detected in one case of Crouzon, all cases of scaphocephaly and healthy individuals. Thus far sequence analysis of FGFR2 in syndromic craniosynostosis has been reported in many white patients, whereas in Japanese only several cases have been studied. The current study with 18 patients confirmed that a similar series of mutations occur in Japanese patients as in white patients regardless of ethnicity and environment. The frequency of the mutation was 82% (9/11 cases) in Japanese Crouzon patients. The ratio of S252W:P253R was 5 : 1 in Japanese Apert patients. Moreover, in Japanese Apert patients, complication rate of cleft palate was 60% for mutation of Ser252Trp and 0 of 2 patients for Pro253Arg, with their syndactyly score being 4.90 and 5.50, respectively.