[Identification and quantitation of purine derivatives in urinary calculi as markers of abnormal purine metabolism by using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)].Ann Acad Med Stetin. 2000; 46:35-49.AA
The objective of this study was to develop a practical method for the analysis of purine derivatives in urinary calculi using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The method presented herein includes extraction of purine derivatives from urinary stones, followed by chromatography on a reversed-phase column with UV detection. A simpler isocratic method was applied to quantitate 6 purines known to be components of urinary stones, namely uric acid, xanthine, hypoxanthine, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine, oxypurinol and allopurinol. Gradient method separated 10 additional peaks representing methyl derivatives of uric acid or xanthine (1-, 3-, 7-, and 9-methyluric acid, 1,3-,1,7-, and 3,7-dimethyluric acid, and 1-, 3-, and 7-methylxanthine) (Fig. 1). Detection limits for individual compounds ranged from 25 to 140 micrograms purine per g stone weight and precision (RSD%) was 0.5-2.4%. Both methods were next used to analyze purine derivatives in urinary calculi from 48 residents of Western Pomerania. Uric acid was the main component of 9 stones. All of the uric acid stones showed admixtures of 9 other purine derivatives: natural metabolites (hypoxanthine, xanthine, 2,8-dihydroxyadenine) and methyl derivatives of uric acid (1-,3-, and 7-methyluric acid, 1,3-dimethyluric acid, 3-, and 7-methylxanthine) originating from the metabolism of exogenous methylxanthines (caffeine, theophylline and theobromine) (Tab. 1,2). Methyl derivatives of uric acid and xanthine, with a maximal content in stones of 1.7%, have hitherto not been considered constituents of urinary calculi. Statistical analysis of the results revealed strong positive correlations between the level of uric acid and of other purine derivatives in stones (Fig. 2). Correlations were also found between levels of some purines and inorganic compounds (Tab. 3). The sensitivity and specificity of HPLC with UV detection satisfy the requirements of a reference method for the analysis of purines in urinary stones. Isocratic separation is simpler in terms of technique and equipment, and therefore more suitable for hospital laboratories. Examination of purine derivatives in stones may be very helpful for the diagnosis of abnormal purine metabolism and urolithiasis, particularly in dihydroxyadeninuria, xanthinuria and during treatment with allopurinol. Gradient separation requiring more sophisticated instrument seems useful for research purposes when the content of methyl derivatives of purines must be known. The present results indicate that urinary purines at concentrations lower than saturation point may nevertheless coprecipitate with oversaturated uric acid and appear as admixtures in urinary stones. The content of a purine derivative in stone depends on its average urinary excretion in the general population, similarity to the chemical structure of uric acid, and content of the latter in stone. These findings suggest that purines in stones represent a solid solution with uric acid as solvent. It is also plausible that methylxanthines, ubiquitous components of the diet and drugs, are involved in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis. Interpretation of results and practical significance of the determination of purine derivatives in stones is discussed, and future studies to assess the clinical importance of endo- and exogenous purine derivatives in urinary calculi are suggested.