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Consequences of sport training during puberty.

Abstract

Growth at puberty depends on one's genetic potential, nutritional status and a series of hormones. Energy expenditure may modify the effects of these three factors on the linear growth rate and the relative proportions of fat-free and fat mass. Participation in sports where weight control is not required does not seem to affect pubertal timing or alter linear growth rate. The growth and maturation of athletes in weight control sports have the additional burden of energy output greater than intake; however, in only a minority the energy deficit is great enough to slow growth and maturation. Studies focusing on male wrestlers and female gymnasts are reviewed. In the wrestlers the hormonal picture is consistent with mild-to-moderate GH resistance and perhaps mild maturational delay, especially in the lower weight classes. The deficits in lean body mass and fat mass "catch-up" quickly following the end of training and competitive season. The situation with the gymnasts is somewhat different, the goal being to develop muscular strength within a shorter and lighter physique. Marked under-nutrition can keep these adolescents pre-pubertal for many years of training and competition. Whether subsequent growth is disproportionate or not remains indeterminate, but the marked delay in the onset of estrogen action can permanently cause the skeleton to be under-mineralized. In conclusion, most athletes continue to track along the centiles of their genetic potential. To define the mechanisms of growth and maturational delay one must longitudinally study children in weight-control sports.

Links

Authors+Show Affiliations

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Department of Pediatrics, State University of New York at Buffalo, 14214-3000, USA. roemmich@buffalo.edu

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Source

MeSH

Adolescent
Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena
Body Height
Body Weight
Child
Energy Intake
Energy Metabolism
Exercise
Female
Growth
Gymnastics
Humans
Male
Puberty
Sports
Wrestling

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11716157

Citation

Roemmich, J N., et al. "Consequences of Sport Training During Puberty." Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, vol. 24, no. 9, 2001, pp. 708-15.
Roemmich JN, Richmond RJ, Rogol AD. Consequences of sport training during puberty. J Endocrinol Invest. 2001;24(9):708-15.
Roemmich, J. N., Richmond, R. J., & Rogol, A. D. (2001). Consequences of sport training during puberty. Journal of Endocrinological Investigation, 24(9), pp. 708-15.
Roemmich JN, Richmond RJ, Rogol AD. Consequences of Sport Training During Puberty. J Endocrinol Invest. 2001;24(9):708-15. PubMed PMID: 11716157.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Consequences of sport training during puberty. AU - Roemmich,J N, AU - Richmond,R J, AU - Rogol,A D, PY - 2001/11/22/pubmed PY - 2002/4/18/medline PY - 2001/11/22/entrez SP - 708 EP - 15 JF - Journal of endocrinological investigation JO - J. Endocrinol. Invest. VL - 24 IS - 9 N2 - Growth at puberty depends on one's genetic potential, nutritional status and a series of hormones. Energy expenditure may modify the effects of these three factors on the linear growth rate and the relative proportions of fat-free and fat mass. Participation in sports where weight control is not required does not seem to affect pubertal timing or alter linear growth rate. The growth and maturation of athletes in weight control sports have the additional burden of energy output greater than intake; however, in only a minority the energy deficit is great enough to slow growth and maturation. Studies focusing on male wrestlers and female gymnasts are reviewed. In the wrestlers the hormonal picture is consistent with mild-to-moderate GH resistance and perhaps mild maturational delay, especially in the lower weight classes. The deficits in lean body mass and fat mass "catch-up" quickly following the end of training and competitive season. The situation with the gymnasts is somewhat different, the goal being to develop muscular strength within a shorter and lighter physique. Marked under-nutrition can keep these adolescents pre-pubertal for many years of training and competition. Whether subsequent growth is disproportionate or not remains indeterminate, but the marked delay in the onset of estrogen action can permanently cause the skeleton to be under-mineralized. In conclusion, most athletes continue to track along the centiles of their genetic potential. To define the mechanisms of growth and maturational delay one must longitudinally study children in weight-control sports. SN - 0391-4097 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11716157/Consequences_of_sport_training_during_puberty_ L2 - https://medlineplus.gov/puberty.html DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -