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Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity.

Abstract

The fatty acid composition of inflammatory and immune cells is sensitive to change according to the fatty acid composition of the diet. In particular, the proportion of different types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in these cells is readily changed, and this provides a link between dietary PUFA intake, inflammation, and immunity. The n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and related compounds, which have important roles in inflammation and in the regulation of immunity. Fish oil contains the n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Feeding fish oil results in partial replacement of AA in cell membranes by EPA. This leads to decreased production of AA-derived mediators. In addition, EPA is a substrate for cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase and gives rise to mediators that often have different biological actions or potencies than those formed from AA. Animal studies have shown that dietary fish oil results in altered lymphocyte function and in suppressed production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages. Supplementation of the diet of healthy human volunteers with fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA results in decreased monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis and decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines. Fish oil feeding has been shown to ameliorate the symptoms of some animal models of autoimmune disease. Clinical studies have reported that fish oil supplementation has beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and among some asthmatics, supporting the idea that the n-3 PUFA in fish oil are anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory.

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  • Publisher Full Text
  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    Institute of Human Nutrition, University of Southampton, Southampton 5016 7PX, United Kingdom. pcc@soton.ac.uk

    Source

    Lipids 36:9 2001 Sep pg 1007-24

    MeSH

    Animals
    Arachidonic Acid
    Eicosanoids
    Fatty Acids, Unsaturated
    Fish Oils
    Humans
    Immune System
    Immune System Diseases
    Immunity
    Infant
    Infant Food
    Inflammation
    Linoleic Acid
    Th1 Cells
    Th2 Cells

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Review

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    11724453

    Citation

    Calder, P C.. "Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Inflammation, and Immunity." Lipids, vol. 36, no. 9, 2001, pp. 1007-24.
    Calder PC. Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity. Lipids. 2001;36(9):1007-24.
    Calder, P. C. (2001). Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity. Lipids, 36(9), pp. 1007-24.
    Calder PC. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids, Inflammation, and Immunity. Lipids. 2001;36(9):1007-24. PubMed PMID: 11724453.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Polyunsaturated fatty acids, inflammation, and immunity. A1 - Calder,P C, PY - 2001/11/29/pubmed PY - 2002/5/25/medline PY - 2001/11/29/entrez SP - 1007 EP - 24 JF - Lipids JO - Lipids VL - 36 IS - 9 N2 - The fatty acid composition of inflammatory and immune cells is sensitive to change according to the fatty acid composition of the diet. In particular, the proportion of different types of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in these cells is readily changed, and this provides a link between dietary PUFA intake, inflammation, and immunity. The n-6 PUFA arachidonic acid (AA) is the precursor of prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and related compounds, which have important roles in inflammation and in the regulation of immunity. Fish oil contains the n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). Feeding fish oil results in partial replacement of AA in cell membranes by EPA. This leads to decreased production of AA-derived mediators. In addition, EPA is a substrate for cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase and gives rise to mediators that often have different biological actions or potencies than those formed from AA. Animal studies have shown that dietary fish oil results in altered lymphocyte function and in suppressed production of proinflammatory cytokines by macrophages. Supplementation of the diet of healthy human volunteers with fish oil-derived n-3 PUFA results in decreased monocyte and neutrophil chemotaxis and decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines. Fish oil feeding has been shown to ameliorate the symptoms of some animal models of autoimmune disease. Clinical studies have reported that fish oil supplementation has beneficial effects in rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and among some asthmatics, supporting the idea that the n-3 PUFA in fish oil are anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory. SN - 0024-4201 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11724453/full_citation L2 - https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0024-4201&date=2001&volume=36&issue=9&spage=1007 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -