Association of awareness, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, and stage of dietary change with fruit and vegetable consumption: a national survey.Am J Health Promot. 2001 Nov-Dec; 16(2):69-78.AJ
To examine associations of awareness, intrapersonal and interpersonal factors, and stage of change with consumption of fruits and vegetables.
Nationally representative, random digit dial survey conducted in 1997 with a response rate of 44.5%. Psychosocial correlates of fruit and vegetable consumption were assessed using regression analyses.
A total of 2605 adults who were 18 years and older.
Awareness of the "5 A Day for Better Health" program and its message, along with stage of change; taste preferences; self-efficacy; and perceived benefits, barriers, threats, social support, and norms related to fruit and vegetable consumption.
Awareness and intrapersonal and interpersonal factors explained 24% of the variance in fruit and vegetable consumption beyond the 9% explained by demographic characteristics. Knowledge of the 5 A Day message was associated with a 22% increase in fruit and vegetable consumption. Self-efficacy for eating fruits and vegetables and taste preferences (affect) were the factors most consistently and strongly associated with both higher consumption and higher likelihood of being in action or maintenance stages of change. Affect and perceived barriers were more strongly associated with increased vegetables and salad than fruit.
Dietary intervention programs to increase fruit and vegetable consumption should emphasize the 5 A Day message, increased self-efficacy, and ways to make vegetables more palatable and easily accessible. Understanding the factors that influence dietary choices should be used when designing dietary interventions.