Safety, vaccine virus shedding and immunogenicity of trivalent, cold-adapted, live attenuated influenza vaccine administered to human immunodeficiency virus-infected and noninfected children.Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2001 Dec; 20(12):1124-31.PI
To assess the safety of live, attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) administered to relatively asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic HIV-infected children and non-HIV-infected children.
Twenty-five non-HIV and 24 HIV-infected children (CDC Class N or A1,2) were enrolled into this double blind, placebo-controlled study. Children were randomized within each HIV status group to one of two dosing regimens: Regimen 1, Dose 1 = LAIV, Dose 2 = placebo, Dose 3 = LAIV; or Regimen 2, Dose 1 = placebo, Dose 2 = LAIV, Dose 3 = LAIV. Study doses were separated by 28 to 35 days. Reactogenicity events within 10 days and adverse events within 28 to 35 days after each study dose were recorded. Blood HIV RNA concentrations, CD4 counts and CD4% were measured throughout the study on HIV-infected children. Quantitative influenza cultures were performed on nasal aspirates collected periodically from all children up to 28 to 35 days after each study dose. Influenza isolates were assessed for retention of the temperature-sensitive phenotype. Serum influenza HAI antibodies were measured before and after each LAIV vaccination.
No significant differences were found in rates of reactogenicity events and vaccine-related adverse events after placebo or the first dose of LAIV within each HIV status group, nor were differences found between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children after each dose of LAIV. Overall none of the HIV-infected children experienced a significant LAIV-related serious adverse event or influenza-like illness, making the one sided 95% CI of such a serious event occurring after LAIV 0 to 12%. No significant changes in geometric mean HIV RNA concentrations, CD4 counts or CD4% or prolonged or increased quantity of LAIV virus shedding occurred in HIV-infected children after receiving either dose of LAIV. All recovered influenza isolates retained the temperature-sensitive phenotype. After two doses of LAIV, 83% of the non-HIV-infected and 77% of the HIV-infected children had a > or = 4-fold rise in influenza antibody to at least one of the three LAIV strains.
If relatively healthy HIV-infected children become exposed to LAIV inadvertently, then serious adverse outcomes would not be expected to occur frequently.