[Comparison between Dyck's criteria and the polyneuropathy index-revised (PNI-R) in the electrophysiologic evaluation of diabetic neuropathy].No To Shinkei. 2001 Nov; 53(11):1015-9.NT
In Rochester diabetic neuropathy research by Dyck et al., abnormal value in two or more nerves was introduced into the nerve conduction criteria of diabetic neuropathy. Polyneuropathy index-revised(PNI-R) is calculated as the mean percentage of the normal of 8 parameters on the motor nerve conduction studies. They were motor nerve conduction velocities in the forearm or leg segment and F-wave latencies after wrist or ankle stimulation concerning to the median, ulnar, peroneal and posterior tibial nerves. F-wave latencies were adjusted to 160 cm height and used reciprocals in comparison with normal values. To compare these two indices, first we obtained the normal limit(1st or 99th percentile value) of each parameter from the data of 62 healthy individuals. Then in 78 patients with diabetes mellitus number of abnormal nerves and the PNI-R were investigated. Abnormal values were frequently observed in the categories of motor nerve conduction velocities and F-wave latencies. Amplitude of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) or sensory nerve action potential(SNAP) in each nerve had a large standard deviation. In such parameters abnormal rate was extremely low, because the lower limit of normal being very small. Nevertheless, sigma CMAP which means the summation of amplitudes of 3 CMAPs had as high as 53% of abnormal rate. The coefficient of correlation between number of abnormal nerves and the value of PNI-R mounted up to -0.87. Instead, the coefficient of correlation of sigma CMAP or sigma SNAP, which means the summation of amplitudes of ulnar and sural SNAPs, with PNI-R were 0.65 and 0.79, respectively. In 14 patients PNI-R was normal and the number of abnormal nerves was 0 or 1. In 59 both categories were abnormal, and only in 5 they were not coincide. As to the clinical signs PNI-R had better correlation than number of abnormal nerves with vibration threshold or degree of Achilles tendon reflex. sigma CMAP is a convenient index to detect the existence and the degree of neuropathy. This index expresses the degree of neurogenic muscular atrophy, though it doesn't always advance parallel to the decrease in number of motor nerves. sigma SNAP had higher coefficient of correlation with PNI-R or number of abnormal nerves than sigma CMAP. In conclusion, abnormal PNI-R and abnormal value in two or more nerves are both useful and coincide with each other in the detection of diabetic neuropathy. The PNI-R is an excellent quantitative index, and the PNI-R corresponds well with the number of abnormal nerves. These observations indicate that the number of nerves with abnormal value is also available as a simple and semi-quantitative index of diabetic neuropathy.