The V kappa III subgroup light chain proteins in AL amyloidosis & autoimmune diseases.Indian J Med Res. 2001 Jul; 114:30-5.IJ
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES
Light chain associated amyloidosis (AL) is characterized by extracellular deposition of immunoglobulin light chain and its fragments. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that some light chains are nonamyloidogenic and nonnephrotoxic, whereas others are potentially amyloidogenic. Some light chains are prone to be deposited as rheumatoid materials, and also as nodular amorphous aggregates (light chain deposition diseases). These findings suggest that specific sequence element(s) may control the various kinds of light chain associated diseases. In this study we tried to identify such sequence element(s).
Two Bence Jones proteins (BJPs), NIG93 and NIG2 of subgroup V kappa III, were characterized and compared with other members of the same subgroup whose sequences are available in the data base.
Both NIG93 and NIG2 proteins had sequences characteristics of V kappa IIIa as distinguished from V kappa IIIb, subsubgroup proteins. They also contained several novel substitutions, such as Met-37, Leu-40, Val-58, and IIe-85 in NIG93, and Val-2, His-29, Arg-50, and Ile-72 in NIG2. The data accumulated at present indicate that all members of the V kappa IIIa subsubgroup are related to either AL amyloidosis or rheumatoid arthritis, whereas the V kappa IIIb proteins are related to autoimmune diseases.
INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSION
These observations indicate that subgroup-specific residues might be critical for light chain pathogenesis, at least for the V kappa III proteins. Point mutations within these proteins may be another structural element controlling their conformation as well as their pathogenic aggregation.