[Latent autoimmune diabetes in adults(LADA): part of the clinical spectrum of type-1 diabetes mellitus of autoimmune origin].Orv Hetil 2001; 142(46):2571-8OH
According to the most recent classification of diabetes mellitus the latent autoimmune diabetes in adults belongs to the group of type 1 autoimmune diabetes mellitus, as a slowly progressive form. It is not clear whether LADA is a distinct clinical entity or it is a part of the clinical spectrum of type 1 diabetes mellitus. The authors compare the antropologic (body mass index, waist to hip ratio), immunologic (occurrence of islet cell cytoplasmic autoantibodies and autoantibodies against glutamic acid decarboxylase and tyrosin phosphatase), genetic (HLA DR and DQ alleles known to be associated to type 1 diabetes mellitus) characteristics and occurrence of the features of the metabolic syndrome in the groups of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and LADA. 81 type 1 and 190 type 2 diabetics and 38 LADA patients were involved into the study. Freshly diagnosed type 1 diabetics served for controls of the autoantibody study: 48 patients manifested < or = 16 years of age and 89 type 1 diabetics manifested above 16 years of age. The three main diabetic groups differed in age: the average age in the type 1, type 2 and LADA groups were 37, 63 and 58 years respectively. There was no difference among the three groups in gender. The duration of the disease differed significantly between the type 2 and LADA groups (4.0 and 8.0 years respectively). In spite of the shorter duration of the disease in the LADA group, compared to the type 2 diabetics the frequency of insulin dependency was significantly higher in the LADA (81.6%) than in the type 2 group (46.7%). The BMI and WHR were comparable between the type 1 and LADA patients (average values were 23 and 0.83 in type 1 patients and 23.25 and 0.89 in LADA). The type 2 group differed significantly from type 1 and LADA (average values were 29.1 and 0.5). The concentration of glycated hemoglobin was comparable in the three groups. But there was a significant difference in HbA1c concentration between the freshly diagnosed subgroups of type 1 and LADA patients: 10.85% and 8% respectively. The fasting C-peptid levels were significantly higher in the sera of type 2 diabetics (0.75 pmol/l) compared to type 1 (0.2 pmol/l) and LADA patients (0.29 pmol/l). There was a significant difference in C-peptid concentrations between the type 1 and LADA groups, too. The insulin deficiency in LADA seemed to be not as severe as in type 1 diabetes. The serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher and the HDL cholesterol concentration significantly lower in type 2 diabetics comparing to type 1 and LADA patients and there was no significant difference in this respect between the type 1 and LADA groups. The frequency of occurrence of hypertension differed no significantly between type 2 and LADA, but that of in type 1 diabetes was significantly lower than both type 2 and LADA. The occurrence of multiple autoantibodies (ICA + GADA + anti-IA2) was much more frequent in type 1 diabetes compared to LADA. In the sera of LADA patients the occurrence of ICA and GADA alone or ICA + GADA was characteristic (31.5% - 21.1% - 15.8% respectively). There was no difference between type 1 diabetes and LADA in the occurrence of the alleles of the MHC kown to be associated with type 1 diabetes. The occurrence of the haplotypes HLA DQ2/DR3 and/or DQ8/DR4 was observed in two thirds of type 1 diabetic and LADA patients. Chronic diabetic complications were observed in all of the groups and there was only a secondary connection of the complications with the type of the diabetes. Based on the results the authors suggest that LADA is a part of the clinical spectrum of type 1 diabetes of autoimmune origin.