Mortality and morbidity trends in ischemic heart disease in the autonomous region of Madeira in the ten-year period 1987-1996.Rev Port Cardiol. 2001 Oct; 20(10):965-83.RP
The increase in absolute number of deaths from ischemic heart disease (IHD) in the population aged > or = 65 years, in both sexes, in Madeira, when comparing the years 1987 and 1996, led to significant increases in the corresponding standardized death rates that go against the stabilization seen at national level. Significant increases in these rates for the same years were also seen in the district of Beja and in the Azores. The aim of this study was to ascertain the trends for the incidence, morbidity and mortality from acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in patients admitted in Madeira and its contribution to the increase in these rates, particularly in the population aged < 65 years of both sexes, which the number of deaths from ischemic heart disease did not increase. We studied 119 pts with AMI admitted in 1987 (year A), of whom 53 were aged < 65 years, and 186 pts with AMI admitted in 1996 (year B), of whom 72 were aged < 65 years, whose data were included in the Madeira Ischemic Heart Disease Register (RECIMA), an IHD hospital register that covers 1792 patients admitted with AMI in the Coronary Intensive Care Unit of the Department of Medical and Surgical Cardiology of Funchal Hospital over a period of 15 years (1984-1998). Mortality by the 28th day (fatal AMI admissions) in all ages fell slightly in both sexes in the two years studied (A = 19.3%; B = 16.1%). The number of fatal AMI admissions rose among females in the two age groups considered A = 11; B = 20; delta% = +45) and fell among males (A = 12; B = 10; delta% = -20). In males aged > or = 65 years, this number remained the same (A = 7; B = 7) and fell in males aged > or = 65 years (A = 5; B = 3; delta% = -40). The number of pts who survived to the 28th day (non-fatal AMI admissions) rose in all age groups for both sexes (A = 96; B = 156; delta% = +38.46), as did the ratios with deaths from IHD. These increases were roughly double in the group of patients aged 65 years compared to patients aged < 65 years. We found highly significant positive correlations in the population aged < 65 years between the number of non-fatal AMI admissions (morbidity data) and the number of deaths from IHD (mortality data) recorded in every year of the 10-year period 1987-96, these values being highly significant in both sexes (r = 0.89; p < 0.0001), in males (r = 0.87; p < 0.0001) and in females (r = 0.77; p < 0.0001). Since our study was carried out on an island on which all AMI cases are admitted to a single treatment center, we can conclude that these positive correlations represent a trend towards worsening of morbidity and mortality from IHD in Madeira in the population aged < 65 years, even though the number of deaths from IHD did not rise. The establishment of IHD registers similar to RECIMA in other regions of the country would help to identify trends in morbidity, mortality, and morbidity plus mortality in this population that would be useful in improving the orientation of resources allocated to the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases.