Measurement of the viability of arbuscular-mycorrhizal fungi using three different stains; relation to growth and metabolic activities of soybean plants.Microbiol Res. 2001; 156(4):359-67.MR
Histochemical staining of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activities in four arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (Glomus intraradices, G. fasciculatum, G. monosporum and G. mosseae) and their relation to growth and metabolic activities of soybean plants were investigated in a greenhouse experiment. In general, mycorrhizal inoculation significantly increased the growth responses, phosphorus and nitrogen contents, acid and alkaline phosphatases as well as total soluble protein of soybean compared to non-mycorrhizal plants. Stimulation was related to the viability of each mycorrhizal fungus. The localization of succinate dehydrogenase (as a vital stain of metabolically active fungus) and alkaline phosphatase activity (as a potential marker of efficiency of the symbiosis) in the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were variable. The activity appeared in young arbuscles and intercellular hyphae, whereas the collapsed arbuscules were inactive. The histochemical staining results demonstrated that the activity of alkaline phosphatase fungi was lower than succinate dehydrogenase. The use of nitroblue tetrazolium chloride as a vital stain for SDH activity showed that all mycorrhizal infection revealed by trypan blue staining was not physiologically active. Thus, the possible utilization of these enzymes to assess the activity of mycorrhizal fungi and its relation with effectively for plant growth and mineral contents is discussed.