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Influence of gender on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children referred to a psychiatric clinic.
Am J Psychiatry. 2002 Jan; 159(1):36-42.AJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The substantial discrepancy in the male-to-female ratio between clinic-referred (10 to 1) and community (3 to 1) samples of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests that gender differences may be operant in the phenotypic expression of ADHD. In this study the authors systematically examined the impact of gender on the clinical features of ADHD in a group of children referred to a clinic.

METHOD

The study included 140 boys and 140 girls with ADHD and 120 boys and 122 girls without ADHD as comparison subjects. All subjects were systematically assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and neuropsychological batteries for subtypes of ADHD as well as emotional, school, intellectual, interpersonal, and family functioning.

RESULTS

Girls with ADHD were more likely than boys to have the predominantly inattentive type of ADHD, less likely to have a learning disability, and less likely to manifest problems in school or in their spare time. In addition, girls with ADHD were at less risk for comorbid major depression, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder than boys with ADHD. A statistically significant gender-by-ADHD interaction was identified for comorbid substance use disorders as well.

CONCLUSIONS

The lower likelihood for girls to manifest psychiatric, cognitive, and functional impairment than boys could result in gender-based referral bias unfavorable to girls with ADHD.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Pediatric Psychopharmacology Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114, USA. biederman@helix.mgh.harvard.eduNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11772687

Citation

Biederman, Joseph, et al. "Influence of Gender On Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Referred to a Psychiatric Clinic." The American Journal of Psychiatry, vol. 159, no. 1, 2002, pp. 36-42.
Biederman J, Mick E, Faraone SV, et al. Influence of gender on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children referred to a psychiatric clinic. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(1):36-42.
Biederman, J., Mick, E., Faraone, S. V., Braaten, E., Doyle, A., Spencer, T., Wilens, T. E., Frazier, E., & Johnson, M. A. (2002). Influence of gender on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children referred to a psychiatric clinic. The American Journal of Psychiatry, 159(1), 36-42.
Biederman J, et al. Influence of Gender On Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children Referred to a Psychiatric Clinic. Am J Psychiatry. 2002;159(1):36-42. PubMed PMID: 11772687.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Influence of gender on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children referred to a psychiatric clinic. AU - Biederman,Joseph, AU - Mick,Eric, AU - Faraone,Stephen V, AU - Braaten,Ellen, AU - Doyle,Alysa, AU - Spencer,Thomas, AU - Wilens,Timothy E, AU - Frazier,Elizabeth, AU - Johnson,Mary Ann, PY - 2002/1/5/pubmed PY - 2002/2/1/medline PY - 2002/1/5/entrez SP - 36 EP - 42 JF - The American journal of psychiatry JO - Am J Psychiatry VL - 159 IS - 1 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The substantial discrepancy in the male-to-female ratio between clinic-referred (10 to 1) and community (3 to 1) samples of children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suggests that gender differences may be operant in the phenotypic expression of ADHD. In this study the authors systematically examined the impact of gender on the clinical features of ADHD in a group of children referred to a clinic. METHOD: The study included 140 boys and 140 girls with ADHD and 120 boys and 122 girls without ADHD as comparison subjects. All subjects were systematically assessed with structured diagnostic interviews and neuropsychological batteries for subtypes of ADHD as well as emotional, school, intellectual, interpersonal, and family functioning. RESULTS: Girls with ADHD were more likely than boys to have the predominantly inattentive type of ADHD, less likely to have a learning disability, and less likely to manifest problems in school or in their spare time. In addition, girls with ADHD were at less risk for comorbid major depression, conduct disorder, and oppositional defiant disorder than boys with ADHD. A statistically significant gender-by-ADHD interaction was identified for comorbid substance use disorders as well. CONCLUSIONS: The lower likelihood for girls to manifest psychiatric, cognitive, and functional impairment than boys could result in gender-based referral bias unfavorable to girls with ADHD. SN - 0002-953X UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11772687/Influence_of_gender_on_attention_deficit_hyperactivity_disorder_in_children_referred_to_a_psychiatric_clinic_ L2 - https://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/doi/10.1176/appi.ajp.159.1.36?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori:rid:crossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub=pubmed DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -