Dietary fat saturation affects apolipoprotein AII levels and HDL composition in postmenopausal women.J Nutr. 2002 Jan; 132(1):50-4.JN
Increased HDL-cholesterol levels have been associated with lower coronary heart disease (CHD) risk. However, HDL are heterogeneous lipoproteins, and particles enriched in apolipoprotein (Apo) AII have been associated with increased CHD risk. We examined the effect of dietary intervention on HDL composition in 14 postmenopausal women subjected to two consecutive diet periods, i.e., an oleic acid sunflower oil diet followed by a palmolein diet, each lasting 4 wk. The linoleic acid was kept at 4% total energy and the cholesterol intake at 400 mg/d. The palmolein diet increased serum total cholesterol (TC) (P < 0.001), phospholipids (P < 0.001), Apo AII (P < 0.001), HDL cholesterol (P < 0.05), HDL lipids (P < 0.05), HDL proteins (P < 0.01) and the HDL total mass (P < 0.05). The HDL cholesterol/Apo AI ratio was increased 22.0% (P < 0.05), whereas the HDL cholesterol/Apo AII and the Apo AI/Apo AII ratios were decreased 19.4% (P < 0.01) and 30.4%, (P < 0.001), respectively. When the effects of the dietary intervention were examined according to the cholesterolemia status (< or >6.2 mmol/L), the most significant changes (P < 0.001) were related to Apo AII levels. Moreover, a significant dietary oil by cholesterol level interaction was found for Apo AII and the HDL cholesterol/Apo AII ratio. In summary, a palmolein diet increased TC and HDL cholesterol compared with oleic acid sunflower oil diet; however, the increase in Apo AII but not in Apo AI suggests the impairment of reverse cholesterol transport and potentially an increase in CHD risk. This effect was more marked in women with serum TC > 6.2 mmol/L.