Differential mechanisms of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene activation by transforming growth factor-beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in endothelial cells.Thromb Haemost. 2001 Dec; 86(6):1563-72.TH
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a serine protease inhibitor (SERPIN) specific for tissue-type and urokinase-like plasminogen activators. High plasma PAI-1 activity is a risk factor for thrombotic diseases. Due to the short half-life of PAI-1, regulation of PAI-1 gene expression and secretion of active PAI-1 into the blood stream is important for hemostatic balance. We have investigated transcriptional control of PAI-1 gene expression in bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs) and human cell lines using PAI-1 5' promoter-luciferase reporter assays. Contrary to the cytokine-induced up-regulation of PAI-1 mRNA and protein levels, we found that only transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) was efficient in inducing PAI-1 promoter activation. Tissue necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) induced a small luciferase activity with the 2.5 kb PAI-1 promoter, but not with the PAI-800/4G/5G and p3TP-lux promoters. Next we investigated whether a lack of response to TNF-alpha was due to deficient signaling pathways. BAECs responded to TNF-alpha with robust NFkappaB promoter activation. TGF-beta activated the p38 MAP kinase, while TNF-alpha activated both the SAPK/JNK and p38 MAP kinases. The ERK1/2 MAP kinases were constitutively activated in BAECs. BAEC therefore responded to TNF-alpha stimulation with activation of the MAP kinases and the NFkappaB transcriptional factors. We further measured the messenger RNA stability under the influence by TGF-beta and TNF-alpha and found no difference. PAI-1 gene activation by TNF-alpha apparently is yet to be defined for the location of the response element and/or the signaling pathway, while TGF-beta is the most important cytokine for PAI-1 transcriptional activation through its 5' proximal promoter.