Endocrine and metabolic abnormalities involved in obesity associated with typical antipsychotic drug administration.Pharmacopsychiatry. 2001 Nov; 34(6):223-31.P
In this study, the authors assessed the endocrine system and glucose tolerance in obese and non-obese women chronically treated with typical antipsychotic drugs (AP). In particular, we tested the hypotheses that these subjects display hypogonadism and increased insulin resistance compared to healthy weight-matched controls, as these abnormalities create a tendency towards excessive body weight gain. Twenty-six AP-treated women were matched with 26 healthy women by age, body mass index and day of the menstrual cycle. The following serum variables were evaluated in each subject: glucose tolerance after an oral glucose overload, insulin, leptin, beta-endorphin, reproductive hormones, adrenal steroids and lipids. Compared to controls, AP-treated women displayed significantly higher levels of basal glucose, insulin after 60 min of the glucose overload, prolactin, thyroid stimulating hormone and beta-endorphin, with lower levels of C-Peptide, progesterone, 17-OH progesterone, androstenedione and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The levels of estradiol, estrone and leptin did not differ between the groups. Thus, women treated with typical AP appeared to display more insulin resistance than healthy controls, predisposing them to excessive weight gain. Insulin sensitivity might be further impaired when the subject switches to atypical AP administration. Metformin and related agents may reduce body weight in these subjects. The high levels of the opiate beta-endorphin suggest that opiate antagonists such as naloxone and naltrexone might be useful as well. Even though the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle appears to be severely disturbed, the normal serum levels of estradiol and estrone do not support the proposal derived from animal experimental studies about the use of estrogens or tamoxifen to counteract AP-induced obesity.