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Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters and non-esterified stanols in margarine, butter and low-fat foods.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001 Dec; 55(12):1084-90.EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVES

To determine the efficacy on plasma cholesterol-lowering of plant sterol esters or non-esterified stanols eaten within low-fat foods as well as margarine.

DESIGN

Randomised, controlled, single-blind study with sterol esters and non-esterified plant stanols provided in breakfast cereal, bread and spreads. Study 1 comprised 12 weeks during which sterol esters (2.4 g) and stanol (2.4 g)-containing foods were eaten during 4 week test periods of cross-over design following a 4 week control food period. In Study 2, in a random order cross-over design, a 50% dairy fat spread with or without 2.4 g sterol esters daily was tested.

SUBJECTS

Hypercholesterolaemic subjects; 22 in study 1 and 15 in study 2.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

Plasma lipids, plasma sterols, plasma carotenoids and tocopherols.

RESULTS

Study 1-median LDL cholesterol was reduced by the sterol esters (-13.6%; P<0.001 by ANOVA on ranks; P<0.05 by pairwise comparison) and by stanols (-8.3%; P=0.003, ANOVA and <0.05 pairwise comparison). With sterol esters plasma plant sterol levels rose (35% for sitosterol, 51% for campesterol; P<0.001); plasma lathosterol rose 20% (P=0.03), indicating compensatory increased cholesterol synthesis. With stanols, plasma sitosterol fell 22% (P=0.004), indicating less cholesterol absorption. None of the four carotenoids measured in plasma changed significantly. In study 2, median LDL cholesterol rose 6.5% with dairy spread and fell 12.2% with the sitosterol ester fortified spread (P=0.03 ANOVA and <5% pairwise comparison).

CONCLUSION

1. Plant sterol esters and non-esterified stanols, two-thirds of which were incorporated into low-fat foods, contributed effectively to LDL cholesterol lowering, extending the range of potential foods. 2. The LDL cholesterol-raising effect of butter fat could be countered by including sterol esters. 3. Plasma carotenoids and tocopherols were not reduced in this study.

SPONSORSHIP

Meadow Lea Foods, Australia.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Baker Medical Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11781675

Citation

Nestel, P, et al. "Cholesterol-lowering Effects of Plant Sterol Esters and Non-esterified Stanols in Margarine, Butter and Low-fat Foods." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 55, no. 12, 2001, pp. 1084-90.
Nestel P, Cehun M, Pomeroy S, et al. Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters and non-esterified stanols in margarine, butter and low-fat foods. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55(12):1084-90.
Nestel, P., Cehun, M., Pomeroy, S., Abbey, M., & Weldon, G. (2001). Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters and non-esterified stanols in margarine, butter and low-fat foods. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55(12), 1084-90.
Nestel P, et al. Cholesterol-lowering Effects of Plant Sterol Esters and Non-esterified Stanols in Margarine, Butter and Low-fat Foods. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2001;55(12):1084-90. PubMed PMID: 11781675.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Cholesterol-lowering effects of plant sterol esters and non-esterified stanols in margarine, butter and low-fat foods. AU - Nestel,P, AU - Cehun,M, AU - Pomeroy,S, AU - Abbey,M, AU - Weldon,G, PY - 2000/12/18/received PY - 2001/04/23/revised PY - 2001/05/04/accepted PY - 2002/1/10/pubmed PY - 2002/2/7/medline PY - 2002/1/10/entrez SP - 1084 EP - 90 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 55 IS - 12 N2 - OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy on plasma cholesterol-lowering of plant sterol esters or non-esterified stanols eaten within low-fat foods as well as margarine. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled, single-blind study with sterol esters and non-esterified plant stanols provided in breakfast cereal, bread and spreads. Study 1 comprised 12 weeks during which sterol esters (2.4 g) and stanol (2.4 g)-containing foods were eaten during 4 week test periods of cross-over design following a 4 week control food period. In Study 2, in a random order cross-over design, a 50% dairy fat spread with or without 2.4 g sterol esters daily was tested. SUBJECTS: Hypercholesterolaemic subjects; 22 in study 1 and 15 in study 2. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Plasma lipids, plasma sterols, plasma carotenoids and tocopherols. RESULTS: Study 1-median LDL cholesterol was reduced by the sterol esters (-13.6%; P<0.001 by ANOVA on ranks; P<0.05 by pairwise comparison) and by stanols (-8.3%; P=0.003, ANOVA and <0.05 pairwise comparison). With sterol esters plasma plant sterol levels rose (35% for sitosterol, 51% for campesterol; P<0.001); plasma lathosterol rose 20% (P=0.03), indicating compensatory increased cholesterol synthesis. With stanols, plasma sitosterol fell 22% (P=0.004), indicating less cholesterol absorption. None of the four carotenoids measured in plasma changed significantly. In study 2, median LDL cholesterol rose 6.5% with dairy spread and fell 12.2% with the sitosterol ester fortified spread (P=0.03 ANOVA and <5% pairwise comparison). CONCLUSION: 1. Plant sterol esters and non-esterified stanols, two-thirds of which were incorporated into low-fat foods, contributed effectively to LDL cholesterol lowering, extending the range of potential foods. 2. The LDL cholesterol-raising effect of butter fat could be countered by including sterol esters. 3. Plasma carotenoids and tocopherols were not reduced in this study. SPONSORSHIP: Meadow Lea Foods, Australia. SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11781675/Cholesterol_lowering_effects_of_plant_sterol_esters_and_non_esterified_stanols_in_margarine_butter_and_low_fat_foods_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601264 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -