Chemical authentication of extra virgin olive oil varieties by supervised chemometric procedures.J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Jan 30; 50(3):413-8.JA
This work has focused on discriminating extra virgin olive oils from Sabina (Lazio, Italy) by olive fruit variety (cultivar). A set of oils from five of the most widespread cultivars (Carboncella, Frantoio, Leccino, Moraiolo, and Pendolino) in this geographical area was analyzed for chemical composition using only the Official Analytical Methods, recognized for the quality control and commercial classification of this product. The obtained data set was converted into a computer-compatible format, and principal component analysis (PCA) and a method based on the Fisher F ratio were used to reduce the number of variables without a significant loss of chemical information. Then, to differentiate these samples, two supervised chemometric procedures were applied to process the experimental data: linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and artificial neural network (ANN) using the back-propagation algorithm. It was found that both of these techniques were able to generalize and correctly predict all of the samples in the test set. However, these results were obtained using 10 variables for LDA and 6 (the major fatty acid percentages, determined by a single gas chromatogram) for ANN, which, in this case, appears to provide a better prediction ability and a simpler chemical analysis. Finally, it is pointed out that, to achieve the correct authentication of all samples, the selected training set must be representative of the whole data set.