Laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair.Semin Laparosc Surg. 2001 Dec; 8(4):240-5.SL
The term paraesophageal hernia is described as a herniation of the gastric fundus through the open hiatus into the thoracic cavity while the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) remains in its normal anatomic position. This is considered a rolling esophageal hernia (Type II), and it is the least commonly encountered hiatal hernia. A more commonly encountered herniation of the fundus of the stomach is the Type III hernia, in which both the LES and the fundus herniate into the chest. This has also been classified as a paraesophageal hernia. The most common hiatal hernia is a sliding hiatal hernia (Type I), which consists of herniation of the stomach through the esophageal hiatus, causing the LES and gastric cardia to lie in the thoracic cavity. There are several controversial issues involved in paraesophageal hernia repair, including indications for surgery, the most appropriate surgical approach, and the need for a concomitant antireflux procedure. The increasing popularity of laparoscopic paraesophageal hernia repair has dramatically altered the approach to these patients and has allowed patients at higher risk to better tolerate this procedure with a decrease in morbidity and mortality. However, they remain difficult surgical procedures.