[Determination of insulin, leptin and neuropeptide y by radioimmunoanalysis in patients with morbid obesity and anorexia nervosa after therapeutic intervention].Rev Esp Med Nucl 2002; 21(1):3-11RE
The present study was conducted in order to analyze the relationship existing between leptin, insulin and neuropeptide Y (NPY) levels in massive weight loss and weight recovery. Twenty-three patients with severe obesity, 23 patients with anorexia nervosa and 28 healthy control subjects were studied. Patients with severe obesity underwent a vertical banded gastroplasty followed by an 800 kcal/day diet during 16 weeks, with evaluation taking place before (Body mass index, BMI, 52,1 8 Kg/m2) and after the drastic weight loss (BMI 39,2 6,2 Kg/m2). Patients with anorexia nervosa were treated with nutritional therapy exclusively during 16 weeks, and they were evaluated in the low weight situation (BMI 15,3 1,7 Kg/m2) and after weight recovery (BMI 18,9 2,8 Kg/m2). Normal subjects had a normal BMI from 20 to 27 (average 21,8 2 Kg/m2). BMI, percentage of body fat, and serum levels of leptin, insulin, and NPY, were determined in each patient and normal subjects. In severe obese patients serum leptin and insulin decreased significantly after drastic weight reduction (leptin: from 48,8 19,2 to 24,3 9,8 ng/ml; insulin: from 26,2 10,8 to 18 6 U/ml). In patients with anorexia nervosa serum leptin mean levels were significantly higher after weight recovery (3,7 1,9 vs 9,2 5,1 ng/ml). In subjects with morbid obesity NPY levels decreased after weight loss below those of control group (43,5 16,1 vs 57,3 12,8 pmol/l). On the other hand, patients with anorexia nervosa had NPY levels superior to those of control group. In subjects with anorexia, NPY levels decreased after weight recovery (69,1 16,7 a 59,1 20,3 pmol/l). In the whole population, Leptin and NPY plasma levels were correlated with body fat percentage. Leptin was positively correlated with BMI and body fat percentage in obese and anorectic subjects after weight loss or recovery, respectively. NPY was inversely correlated with body fat percentage in controls and obese subjects before treatment. These data reveal that the concentration of serum leptin and NPY correlates significantly with the total adiposity in subjects with a wide weight range and caloric intake. Leptin plasma levels are proportional to fat stores in patients with severe obesity and anorexia nervosa after drastic weight loss or recovery, respectively. NPY serum levels are negatively correlated with de total body fat in normal weight subjects and obese patients in their initial weight.