Characterization of the lipoxygenases in some olive cultivars and determination of their role in volatile compounds formation.J Agric Food Chem. 2002 Feb 13; 50(4):835-9.JA
Enzymatic extracts from olive pulp (Olea europea L.) were used to characterize lipoxygenase (LOX) activity in order to determine its role in the biogenesis of the volatile compounds that influence the aroma of extra virgin olive oil. The LOX activity was tested spectrophotometrically at an optimal pH of 6.0 in three olive cultivars, Ascolana Tenera, Kalamata, and FS17. The trend of the LOX activity was determined as a function of pH and temperature; the kinetic constants of the enzyme were also determined. The highest LOX activity was observed in the FS17 fruit, which had the highest concentrations of C(5) and C(6) compounds (aldehydes, alcohols, and ketones), followed by Kalamata and Ascolana T., respectively. Given the direct relationship between enzymatic activity and the quantity of aromas measured in the fruit, it is hypothesized that olive LOX is involved in the formation of C(5) and C(6) volatile compounds. To study the mechanism of the movement of the aromas from the fruit to the oil, which was obtained by simple mechanical extraction, the headspace of the oil for each cultivar was analyzed as well as the aromatic composition in order to compare it with the aromas of the fruit.