Crosslinked chitosan microspheres for encapsulation of diclofenac sodium: effect of crosslinking agent.J Microencapsul. 2002 Mar-Apr; 19(2):173-80.JM
Microspheres of chitosan crosslinked with three different crosslinking agents viz, glutaraldehyde, sulphuric acid and heat treatment have been prepared to encapsulate diclofenac sodium (DS). Chitosan microspheres are produced in a w/o emulsion followed by crosslinking in the water phase by one of the crosslinking methods. Encapsulation of DS has been carried out by soaking the already swollen crosslinked microspheres in a saturated solution of DS. Microspheres are further characterized by FTIR, x-RD and SEM. The in-vitro release studies are performed in 7.4 pH buffer solution. Microspheres produced are spherical and have smooth surfaces, with sizes ranging between 40-230 microm, as evidenced by SEM. The crosslinking of chitosan takes place at the free amino group in all the cases, as evidenced by FTIR. This leads to the formation of imine groups or ionic bonds. Polymer crystallinity increases after crosslinking, as determined by x-RD. The method adopted for drug loading into the microspheres is satisfactory, and up to 28-30% w/w loading is observed for the sulphuric acid-crosslinked microspheres, whereas 23-29 and 15-23% of loadings are obtained for the glutaraldehyde (GA)- and heat-crosslinked microspheres, respectively. Among all the systems studied, the 32% GA crosslinked microspheres have shown the sloxvest release i.e. 41% at 420 min, and a fastest release of 81% at 500 min is shown by heat crosslinking for 3 h. Drug release from the matrices deviates slightly from the Fickian process.