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Upper respiratory tract infections.
Indian J Pediatr. 2001 Dec; 68(12):1135-8.IJ

Abstract

Acute respiratory infections accounts for 20-40% of outpatient and 12-35% of inpatient attendance in a general hospital. Upper respiratory tract infections including nasopharyngitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis and otitis media constitute 87.5% of the total episodes of respiratory infections. The vast majority of acute upper respiratory tract infections are caused by viruses. Common cold is caused by viruses in most circumstances and does not require antimicrobial agent unless it is complicated by acute otitis media with effusion, tonsillitis, sinusitis, and lower respiratory tract infection. Sinusitis is commonly associated with common cold. Most instances of rhinosinusitis are viral and therefore, resolve spontaneously without antimicrobial therapy. The most common bacterial agents causing sinusitis are S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. aureus and S. pyogenes. Amoxycillin is antibacterial of choice. The alternative drugs are cefaclor or cephalexin. The latter becomes first line if sinusitis is recurrent or chronic. Acute pharyngitis is commonly caused by viruses and does not need antibiotics. About 15% of the episodes may be due to Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus (GABS). Early initiation of antibiotics in pharyngitis due to GABS can prevent complications such as acute rheumatic fever. The drug of choice is penicillin for 10-14 days. The alternative medications include oral cephalosporins (cefaclor, cephalexin), amoxicillin or macrolides.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Pediatrics, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Review

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11838568

Citation

Jain, N, et al. "Upper Respiratory Tract Infections." Indian Journal of Pediatrics, vol. 68, no. 12, 2001, pp. 1135-8.
Jain N, Lodha R, Kabra SK. Upper respiratory tract infections. Indian J Pediatr. 2001;68(12):1135-8.
Jain, N., Lodha, R., & Kabra, S. K. (2001). Upper respiratory tract infections. Indian Journal of Pediatrics, 68(12), 1135-8.
Jain N, Lodha R, Kabra SK. Upper Respiratory Tract Infections. Indian J Pediatr. 2001;68(12):1135-8. PubMed PMID: 11838568.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Upper respiratory tract infections. AU - Jain,N, AU - Lodha,R, AU - Kabra,S K, PY - 2002/2/13/pubmed PY - 2002/3/7/medline PY - 2002/2/13/entrez SP - 1135 EP - 8 JF - Indian journal of pediatrics JO - Indian J Pediatr VL - 68 IS - 12 N2 - Acute respiratory infections accounts for 20-40% of outpatient and 12-35% of inpatient attendance in a general hospital. Upper respiratory tract infections including nasopharyngitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis and otitis media constitute 87.5% of the total episodes of respiratory infections. The vast majority of acute upper respiratory tract infections are caused by viruses. Common cold is caused by viruses in most circumstances and does not require antimicrobial agent unless it is complicated by acute otitis media with effusion, tonsillitis, sinusitis, and lower respiratory tract infection. Sinusitis is commonly associated with common cold. Most instances of rhinosinusitis are viral and therefore, resolve spontaneously without antimicrobial therapy. The most common bacterial agents causing sinusitis are S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, M. catarrhalis, S. aureus and S. pyogenes. Amoxycillin is antibacterial of choice. The alternative drugs are cefaclor or cephalexin. The latter becomes first line if sinusitis is recurrent or chronic. Acute pharyngitis is commonly caused by viruses and does not need antibiotics. About 15% of the episodes may be due to Group A beta hemolytic streptococcus (GABS). Early initiation of antibiotics in pharyngitis due to GABS can prevent complications such as acute rheumatic fever. The drug of choice is penicillin for 10-14 days. The alternative medications include oral cephalosporins (cefaclor, cephalexin), amoxicillin or macrolides. SN - 0019-5456 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11838568/Upper_respiratory_tract_infections_ L2 - https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmid/11838568/ DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -