Detection of protozoan parasites and microsporidia in irrigation waters used for crop production.J Food Prot. 2002 Feb; 65(2):378-82.JF
The occurrence of human pathogenic parasites in irrigation waters used for food crops traditionally eaten raw was investigated. The polymerase chain reaction was used to detect human pathogenic microsporidia in irrigation waters from the United States and several Central American countries. In addition, the occurrence of both Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts was determined by immunofluorescent techniques. Twenty-eight percent of the irrigation water samples tested positive for microsporidia, 60% tested positive for Giardia cysts, and 36% tested positive for Cryptosporidium oocysts. The average concentrations in samples from Central America containing Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts were 559 cysts and 227 oocysts per 100 liters. In samples from the United States, averages of 25 Giardia cysts per 100 liters and <19 (average detection limit) Cryptosporidium oocysts per 100 liters were detected. Two of the samples that were positive for microsporidia were sequenced, and subsequent database homology comparisons allowed the presumptive identification of two human pathogenic species, Encephalitozoon intestinalis (94% homology) and Pleistophora spp. (89% homology). The presence of human pathogenic parasites in irrigation waters used in the production of crops traditionally consumed raw suggests that there may be a risk of infection to consumers who come in contact with or eat these products.