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Analysis of the reinforcing and subjective effects of different doses of nitrous oxide using a free-choice procedure.
Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002 Mar 01; 66(1):93-103.DA

Abstract

The reinforcing and subjective effects of five doses of nitrous oxide (0, 10, 20, 30, 40% N(2)O in O(2)) were studied in 20 non-drug-abusers using a free-choice procedure. During each of five sessions, subjects sampled a dose of N(2)O and 100% O(2) (placebo) for 10 min each. Later they chose nine times, once every 5 min, among N(2)O (e.g. 'Agent A'), placebo (e.g. 'Agent B'), or a no-drug option. Mean preference ratios (N(2)O choices/[N(2)O choices+placebo choices]) and total N(2)O choice increased with increasing N(2)O dose. Individual preference ratios suggested that at least one active dose of N(2)O functioned as a reinforcer in 80% of subjects, and the doses that functioned as reinforcers varied across subjects. N(2)O choice was positively correlated with end-of-session and post-session ratings of N(2)O liking and of wanting to inhale N(2)O again, but not with ratings of those effects during sampling. Placebo was chosen significantly less than the no-drug option, even though both were 100% O(2). More robust reinforcing effects of N(2)O were observed in this subject population than in previous studies. Choice data emphasize the importance of examining a range of doses, and of examining those effects within-subject, when assessing reinforcing effects of drugs. Inclusion of the no-drug option eliminated the 'forced' choice of placebo, making preference ratios easier to interpret than in previous, forced-choice procedures. Reinforcing effects were more correlated with subjective effects assessed after the session than with subjective effects obtained while subjects were under the influence of the drug.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Anesthesia & Critical Care, The University of Chicago, 5841 S. Maryland Ave., MC 4028, Chicago, IL 60637, USA. dwalker@airway.uchicago.eduNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Comparative Study
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11850141

Citation

Walker, Diana J., and James P. Zacny. "Analysis of the Reinforcing and Subjective Effects of Different Doses of Nitrous Oxide Using a Free-choice Procedure." Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 66, no. 1, 2002, pp. 93-103.
Walker DJ, Zacny JP. Analysis of the reinforcing and subjective effects of different doses of nitrous oxide using a free-choice procedure. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002;66(1):93-103.
Walker, D. J., & Zacny, J. P. (2002). Analysis of the reinforcing and subjective effects of different doses of nitrous oxide using a free-choice procedure. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 66(1), 93-103.
Walker DJ, Zacny JP. Analysis of the Reinforcing and Subjective Effects of Different Doses of Nitrous Oxide Using a Free-choice Procedure. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2002 Mar 1;66(1):93-103. PubMed PMID: 11850141.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Analysis of the reinforcing and subjective effects of different doses of nitrous oxide using a free-choice procedure. AU - Walker,Diana J, AU - Zacny,James P, PY - 2002/2/19/pubmed PY - 2002/5/17/medline PY - 2002/2/19/entrez SP - 93 EP - 103 JF - Drug and alcohol dependence JO - Drug Alcohol Depend VL - 66 IS - 1 N2 - The reinforcing and subjective effects of five doses of nitrous oxide (0, 10, 20, 30, 40% N(2)O in O(2)) were studied in 20 non-drug-abusers using a free-choice procedure. During each of five sessions, subjects sampled a dose of N(2)O and 100% O(2) (placebo) for 10 min each. Later they chose nine times, once every 5 min, among N(2)O (e.g. 'Agent A'), placebo (e.g. 'Agent B'), or a no-drug option. Mean preference ratios (N(2)O choices/[N(2)O choices+placebo choices]) and total N(2)O choice increased with increasing N(2)O dose. Individual preference ratios suggested that at least one active dose of N(2)O functioned as a reinforcer in 80% of subjects, and the doses that functioned as reinforcers varied across subjects. N(2)O choice was positively correlated with end-of-session and post-session ratings of N(2)O liking and of wanting to inhale N(2)O again, but not with ratings of those effects during sampling. Placebo was chosen significantly less than the no-drug option, even though both were 100% O(2). More robust reinforcing effects of N(2)O were observed in this subject population than in previous studies. Choice data emphasize the importance of examining a range of doses, and of examining those effects within-subject, when assessing reinforcing effects of drugs. Inclusion of the no-drug option eliminated the 'forced' choice of placebo, making preference ratios easier to interpret than in previous, forced-choice procedures. Reinforcing effects were more correlated with subjective effects assessed after the session than with subjective effects obtained while subjects were under the influence of the drug. SN - 0376-8716 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11850141/Analysis_of_the_reinforcing_and_subjective_effects_of_different_doses_of_nitrous_oxide_using_a_free_choice_procedure_ L2 - https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0376871601001880 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -