Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor activates proliferation in melanoma cells through p38 MAPK, ATF-2 and cyclin D1.Oncogene. 2002 Feb 07; 21(7):1000-8.O
Members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, including p38 kinase and SAPK/JNK, play a central role in mediating cellular response to environmental stress, growth factors and cytokines. Hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF) is a multifunctional cytokine capable of eliciting mitogenic, motogenic and morphogenetic activities in responsive cells, and has been implicated in tumor development and metastasis. Binding of HGF/SF to its tyrosine kinase receptor c-Met stimulates multiple signal transduction pathways, leading to the activation of numerous transcription factors. We here report that HGF/SF can induce cyclin D1 expression in mouse melanoma cells, and that this up-regulation is mediated in part by the activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2). HGF/SF-mediated phosphorylation of ATF-2 was reduced in the presence of either the p38 kinase-specific inhibitor SB203580, a dominant negative p38 mutant, the SAPK/JNK inhibitor JNK-interacting protein-1 (JIP-1), or the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-specific inhibitor LY294002. Activation of p38 kinase by HGF/SF was partially blocked by the PI3K-specific inhibitor as well. The upstream kinases for p38, MKK3/6, did not become activated following HGF/SF exposure, and ATF-2 activation was undiminished by transient transfection of a dominant negative MKK6 mutant. However, transcriptional up-regulation of cyclin D1 by HGF/SF was partially inhibited by the p38 kinase-specific inhibitor, and cyclin D1 protein induction was partially blocked by a dominant negative ATF-2 mutant. Notably, the p38 kinase-specific inhibitor was able to block melanoma cell proliferation but not motility. We conclude that the ATF-2 transcription factor becomes activated by HGF/SF through p38 MAPK and SAPK/JNK. Moreover, the p38-ATF-2 pathway can help mediate proliferation signals in tumor cells through transcriptional activation of key cell cycle regulators.