Fumigant activity of (E)-anethole identified in Illicium verum fruit against Blattella germanica.Pest Manag Sci 2002; 58(2):161-6PM
The insecticidal activities of materials derived from the fruit of star anise, Illicium verum, against adults of Blattella germanica were examined by direct contact application and fumigation methods, and compared with those of DDVP, deltamethrin and hydramethylnon. The biologically active constituent of the Illicium fruit was characterized as the phenylpropene, (E)-anethole, by spectroscopic analysis. In a filter paper diffusion test with females, (E)-anethole caused 80.3% mortality at 0.159 mg cm-2 at 1 and 3 days after treatment (DAT), whereas 16.7% mortality at 3 DAT was achieved at 0.079 mg cm-2. DDVP and deltamethrin gave > 90% mortality at 0.019 mg cm-2 at 1 DAT. At 0.009 mg cm-2, DDVP and deltamethrin showed 73.3 and 60% mortality at 1 DAT, respectively, but 93.3 and 76.7% mortality at 3 DAT. Hydramethylnon exhibited 0 and 93.3% mortality at 0.159 mg cm-2 at 1 and 3 DAT, respectively, whereas 6.7% mortality at 3 DAT was observed at 0.079 mg cm-2. In a fumigation test with females, (E)-anethole was much more effective in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the insecticidal activity of the compound was largely attributable to fumigant action. (E)-Anethole and DDVP caused 100% mortality at 0.398 and 0.051 mg cm-2 4 and 1 h after treatment, respectively. (E)-Anethole showed 46.7% mortality at 0.199 mg cm-2 at 3 DAT, whereas deltamethrin and hydramethylnon at 0.796 mg cm-2 was ineffective for 3-day period. As naturally occurring insect-control agents, the I verum fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing populations of B germanica.