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The effect of flaxseed supplementation in processed foods on serum fatty acids and enterolactone.
Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002 Feb; 56(2):157-65.EJ

Abstract

OBJECTIVE

The purpose was to study the effects of flaxseed supplementation as a part of daily diet on serum lipids, fatty acids and plasma enterolactone.

DESIGN

Eighty volunteers participated in this clinical nutrition study which was carried out in a controlled, double-blind and cross-over manner. The subjects were randomized to diet sequences AB or BA. Diet A meals contained 1.3 g/100 g ground flaxseed and 5 g/100 g flaxseed oil. Also 3-4 g/100 of inulin and wheat fiber was added. AB diet with non-supplemented foods served as control. Test subjects were on both diets for 4 weeks separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Fifteen test subjects continued an open part of the study for 4 additional months.

INTERVENTIONS

The dietary intake, basic blood values, serum lipids, fatty acids and enterolactone were measured at baseline, after both intervention periods and during the open study, at baseline and after 2 and 4 months. Serum thiocyanate and blood cadmium were controlled after both intervention periods.

RESULTS

The percentage of flaxseed supplemented test food out of total dietary intake was 20% of energy. The test food contained significantly higher amounts of fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and especially alpha-linolenic acid than the control food. No significant changes were observed in the basic laboratory values or in blood lipids. There was a significant increase in serum alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid. Serum enterolactone concentration was doubled during flaxseed supplementation. Serum thiocyanate and blood cadmium values did not exceed reference values and there was no difference between the diets.

CONCLUSIONS

In this study we were able to show that, by adding ground flaxseed and flaxseed oil to one or two daily meals, it is possible to obtain significant effects on serum levels of enterolactone and alpha-linolenic acid.

SPONSORSHIP

The study was sponsored by the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes).

Authors+Show Affiliations

Department of Internal Medicine, The Mehiläinen Hospital, Helsinki, Finland. simo.tarpila@pp.fimnet.fiNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Clinical Trial
Journal Article
Randomized Controlled Trial
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11857049

Citation

Tarpila, S, et al. "The Effect of Flaxseed Supplementation in Processed Foods On Serum Fatty Acids and Enterolactone." European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 56, no. 2, 2002, pp. 157-65.
Tarpila S, Aro A, Salminen I, et al. The effect of flaxseed supplementation in processed foods on serum fatty acids and enterolactone. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(2):157-65.
Tarpila, S., Aro, A., Salminen, I., Tarpila, A., Kleemola, P., Akkila, J., & Adlercreutz, H. (2002). The effect of flaxseed supplementation in processed foods on serum fatty acids and enterolactone. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 56(2), 157-65.
Tarpila S, et al. The Effect of Flaxseed Supplementation in Processed Foods On Serum Fatty Acids and Enterolactone. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2002;56(2):157-65. PubMed PMID: 11857049.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - The effect of flaxseed supplementation in processed foods on serum fatty acids and enterolactone. AU - Tarpila,S, AU - Aro,A, AU - Salminen,I, AU - Tarpila,A, AU - Kleemola,P, AU - Akkila,J, AU - Adlercreutz,H, PY - 2001/01/16/received PY - 2001/06/28/revised PY - 2001/07/02/accepted PY - 2002/2/22/pubmed PY - 2002/5/31/medline PY - 2002/2/22/entrez SP - 157 EP - 65 JF - European journal of clinical nutrition JO - Eur J Clin Nutr VL - 56 IS - 2 N2 - OBJECTIVE: The purpose was to study the effects of flaxseed supplementation as a part of daily diet on serum lipids, fatty acids and plasma enterolactone. DESIGN: Eighty volunteers participated in this clinical nutrition study which was carried out in a controlled, double-blind and cross-over manner. The subjects were randomized to diet sequences AB or BA. Diet A meals contained 1.3 g/100 g ground flaxseed and 5 g/100 g flaxseed oil. Also 3-4 g/100 of inulin and wheat fiber was added. AB diet with non-supplemented foods served as control. Test subjects were on both diets for 4 weeks separated by a 4-week wash-out period. Fifteen test subjects continued an open part of the study for 4 additional months. INTERVENTIONS: The dietary intake, basic blood values, serum lipids, fatty acids and enterolactone were measured at baseline, after both intervention periods and during the open study, at baseline and after 2 and 4 months. Serum thiocyanate and blood cadmium were controlled after both intervention periods. RESULTS: The percentage of flaxseed supplemented test food out of total dietary intake was 20% of energy. The test food contained significantly higher amounts of fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and especially alpha-linolenic acid than the control food. No significant changes were observed in the basic laboratory values or in blood lipids. There was a significant increase in serum alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosapentaenoic acid. Serum enterolactone concentration was doubled during flaxseed supplementation. Serum thiocyanate and blood cadmium values did not exceed reference values and there was no difference between the diets. CONCLUSIONS: In this study we were able to show that, by adding ground flaxseed and flaxseed oil to one or two daily meals, it is possible to obtain significant effects on serum levels of enterolactone and alpha-linolenic acid. SPONSORSHIP: The study was sponsored by the National Technology Agency of Finland (Tekes). SN - 0954-3007 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11857049/The_effect_of_flaxseed_supplementation_in_processed_foods_on_serum_fatty_acids_and_enterolactone_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601298 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -