Echocardiographic patterns and prognosis in heart failure.Rev Port Cardiol 2001; 20(12):1241-6RP
There are many variables with prognostic value in patients with heart failure (HF). Those related to left ventricular function are among the most important. Recently, the evaluation of the patterns of ventricular filling by pulsed Doppler echocardiography has been studied as a variable with prognostic value.
To evaluate the prognostic value of echocardiography variables (diastolic and systolic) in patients with HF. These variables were analysed in respect to hospital admission for cardiovascular reasons or death.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
We evaluated 157 consecutive patients with HF and included 110 patients who were in sinus rhythm. The mean age was 68.2 +/- 0.9 years. HF was ischemic in 52.7%. Patients underwent echocardiography examination within the week of reference. The patients were grouped according to left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction < 40%). We also classified patients in two groups according to the presence of a restrictive pattern in diastolic transmitral flow profile. Finally, we classified all patients in four groups according to their systolic function and diastolic pattern: Group I--systolic dysfunction and restrictive ventricular filling pattern. Group II--systolic dysfunction without restrictive ventricular filling pattern. Group III--without systolic dysfunction with restrictive ventricular filling pattern. Group IV--without systolic dysfunction without restrictive ventricular filling pattern. The events were death or hospital admission. The mean follow up time was 625 +/- 55 days. We did a statistical analysis and for all tests a p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
We found impaired LV systolic function (systolic HF) in 73.6% and restrictive ventricular filling pattern in 45.5%. During the follow-up 41.8% died or were admitted to hospital. Patients with systolic HF had lower admission free survival rate. Patients with restrictive ventricular filling pattern had lower admission free survival rate than those without. Group I had lower admission free survival rate than Group II and Group IV. Group IV had a higher admission free survival than all other Groups.
These results support and expand previous observations that diastolic function variables, such as the pattern of ventricular filling (namely the restrictive) have independent prognostic value in patients with HF.