The functional anatomy of the muscles of facial expression in humans with and without cleft lip and palate. A contribution to refine muscle reconstruction in primary cheilo- and rhinoplasties in patients with uni- and bilateral complete CLP.Ann Anat 2002; 184(1):27-34AA
The great variation of primary cheiloplasty procedures in Cleft Lip and Palate (CLP) patients shows that there is disagreement regarding the embryonic development of this part of the face, the macroscopic and microscopic functional anatomy of the human muscles of facial expression and their role as a functional matrix for balanced and harmonious facial development. The purpose of this study is to present results of microsurgically dissected facial muscles, several parts of the nose and the human midface in specimens with and without cleft lip and palate. The results are compared with those of other investigations. Recommendations are presented for a standardized dissection technique of the facial muscles of expression for different types of primary cheilo- and rhinoplasty techniques.