Biochemical reactivity of melatonin with reactive oxygen and nitrogen species: a review of the evidence.Cell Biochem Biophys. 2001; 34(2):237-56.CB
Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), an endogenously produced indole found throughout the animal kingdom, was recently reported, using a variety of techniques, to be a scavenger of a number of reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species both in vitro and in vivo. Initially, melatonin was discovered to directly scavenge the high toxic hydroxyl radical (*OH). The methods used to prove the interaction of melatonin with the *OH included the generation of the radical using Fenton reagents or the ultraviolet photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (H202) with the use of spin-trapping agents, followed by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, pulse radiolysis followed by ESR, and several spectrofluorometric and chemical (salicylate trapping in vivo) methodologies. One product of the reaction of melatonin with the *OH was identified as cyclic 3-hydroxymelatonin (3-OHM) using high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical (HPLC-EC) detection, electron ionization mass spectrometry (EIMS), proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR) and COSY 1H NMR. Cyclic 3-OHM appears in the urine of humans and other mammals and in rat urine its concentration increases when melatonin is given exogenously or after an imposed oxidative stress (exposure to ionizing radiation). Urinary cyclic 3-OHM levels are believed to be a biomarker (footprint molecule) of in vivo *OH production and its scavenging by melatonin. Although the data are less complete, besides the *OH, melatonin in cell-free systems has been shown to directly scavenge H2O2, singlet oxygen (1O2) and nitric oxide (NO*), with little or no ability to scavenge the superoxide anion radical (O2*-) In vitro, melatonin also directly detoxifies the peroxynitrite anion (ONOO-) and/or peroxynitrous acid (ONOOH), or the activated form of this molecule, ONOOH*; the product of the latter interaction is proposed to be 6-OHM. How these in vitro findings relate to the in vivo antioxidant actions of melatonin remains to be established. The ability of melatonin to scavenge the lipid peroxyl radical (LOO*) is debated. The weight of the evidence is that melatonin is probably not a classic chain-breaking antioxidant, since its ability to scavenge the LOO* seems weak. Its ability to reduce lipid peroxidation may stem from its function as a preventive antioxidant (scavenging initiating radicals), or yet unidentified actions. In sum, in vitro melatonin acts as a direct free radical scavenger with the ability to detoxify both reactive oxygen and reactive nitrogen species; in vivo, it is an effective pharmacological agent in reducing oxidative damage under conditions in which excessive free radical generation is believed to be involved.