Phytoestrogens: dietary intake and excretion in postmenopausal Chinese women.Climacteric. 1998 Dec; 1(4):290-5.C
The aims of this study were to estimate the dietary intake of phytoestrogens and to measure urinary phytoestrogen excretion in postmenopausal Chinese women.
Postmenopausal Chinese women were recruited from the hormone replacement clinic of the Prince of Wales Hospital. Dietary intake of phytoestrogen-rich foods was estimated using a food frequency questionnaire. Urinary output of the isoflavonoids daidzein and genistein and the metabolite of daidzein, equol, was measured using high-performance liquid chromatography.
The mean daily excretion of daidzein, genistein and equol was 3.24 (+/- 3.63), 1.47 (+/- 1.75) and 0.64 (+/- 1.53) mumol, respectively. The total mean daily isoflavonoid excretion was 5.36 (+/- 5.27) mumol.
Urinary excretion of isoflavonoid phytoestrogens in this Chinese population was lower than that reported in Japanese subjects. This may be due to the higher consumption of legumes, especially soy products, in the Japanese compared to the Chinese diet. The intake of green vegetables was higher in the Chinese subjects, and this food group may be the main contributor to their total phytoestrogen intake.