Intakes of energy and macronutrients and the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia.Am J Clin Nutr 2002; 75(4):689-97AJ
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a common disease of older men. Although the etiology remains unclear, nutritional factors may have an effect on the disease.
Because the literature on the relations between macronutrient intakes and BPH risk is limited, we examined these relations among men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study.
We followed men aged 40-75 y from baseline in 1986 to 1994. Total BPH cases (n = 3523) comprised men who reported BPH surgery (n = 1589) or who did not undergo surgery but scored 15-35 points on the lower urinary tract symptom questionnaire of the American Urological Association (n = 1934); non-cases were men who scored < or = 7 points (n = 24388). Odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs were calculated by using multivariate logistic regression.
The ORs rose with increasing total energy intake in a comparison of the highest and lowest quintiles for total BPH (OR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.14, 1.45) and symptoms of BPH (1.43; 1.23, 1.66). Energy-adjusted total protein intake was positively associated with total BPH (1.18; 1.05, 1.33) and BPH surgery (1.26; 1.06, 1.49). Energy-adjusted total fat intake was not associated with risk of total BPH, but intakes of eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and arachidonic acids were associated with a moderate increase in risk of total BPH.
We observed modest direct associations between BPH and intakes of total energy, protein, and specific long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Because eicosapentaenoic, docosahexaenoic, and arachidonic acids are highly unsaturated fatty acids, our findings support a possible role of oxidative stress in the etiology of BPH.