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Do risk factors for Alzheimer's disease predict dementia in Parkinson's disease? An exploratory study.
Mov Disord 2002; 17(2):250-7MD

Abstract

The extent to which concomitant Alzheimer's disease (AD) is etiologically related to the development of dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains controversial. We explored the association of four risk factors associated with AD, including head injury, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, with incident dementia in PD. A cohort of 180 nondemented PD patients from the Washington Heights community in northern Manhattan, New York, completed a risk factor questionnaire at baseline and was followed annually with neurological and neuropsychological evaluations. The association of baseline variables with incident dementia was analyzed by using Cox proportional hazards models. All analyses controlled for age at baseline, gender, years of education, duration of PD, and total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score at baseline. Of 180 patients (mean age, 71.0 +/- 10.3 years), 52 (29%) became demented during a mean follow-up period of 3.6 +/- 2.2 years. Head injury risk ratio ([RR] 0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-2.2; P = 0.9), hypertension (RR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.4-1.4, P = 0.3), and diabetes mellitus (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-2.3; P = 0.7) were not significantly associated with incident dementia in the Cox models. Patients who reported having ever smoked were at increased risk for the development of dementia compared with nonsmokers (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.9; P = 0.05). Current smoking was significantly associated with incident dementia (RR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.2-16.4; P = 0.02), whereas past smoking approached significance (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9-3.7; P = 0.07). Although an inverse association between smoking and PD has been reported in several studies, our study showed a positive association between smoking and dementia in the setting of PD. The association of smoking with incident dementia in PD deserves further study.

Authors+Show Affiliations

Gertrude H. Sergievsky Center, College of Physicians and Surgeons, Columbia University, New York, New York, USA.No affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info availableNo affiliation info available

Pub Type(s)

Journal Article
Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

Language

eng

PubMed ID

11921109

Citation

Levy, Gilberto, et al. "Do Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease Predict Dementia in Parkinson's Disease? an Exploratory Study." Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, vol. 17, no. 2, 2002, pp. 250-7.
Levy G, Tang MX, Cote LJ, et al. Do risk factors for Alzheimer's disease predict dementia in Parkinson's disease? An exploratory study. Mov Disord. 2002;17(2):250-7.
Levy, G., Tang, M. X., Cote, L. J., Louis, E. D., Alfaro, B., Mejia, H., ... Marder, K. (2002). Do risk factors for Alzheimer's disease predict dementia in Parkinson's disease? An exploratory study. Movement Disorders : Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 17(2), pp. 250-7.
Levy G, et al. Do Risk Factors for Alzheimer's Disease Predict Dementia in Parkinson's Disease? an Exploratory Study. Mov Disord. 2002;17(2):250-7. PubMed PMID: 11921109.
* Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
TY - JOUR T1 - Do risk factors for Alzheimer's disease predict dementia in Parkinson's disease? An exploratory study. AU - Levy,Gilberto, AU - Tang,Ming-Xin, AU - Cote,Lucien J, AU - Louis,Elan D, AU - Alfaro,Brenda, AU - Mejia,Helen, AU - Stern,Yaakov, AU - Marder,Karen, PY - 2002/3/29/pubmed PY - 2002/5/23/medline PY - 2002/3/29/entrez SP - 250 EP - 7 JF - Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society JO - Mov. Disord. VL - 17 IS - 2 N2 - The extent to which concomitant Alzheimer's disease (AD) is etiologically related to the development of dementia in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains controversial. We explored the association of four risk factors associated with AD, including head injury, smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, with incident dementia in PD. A cohort of 180 nondemented PD patients from the Washington Heights community in northern Manhattan, New York, completed a risk factor questionnaire at baseline and was followed annually with neurological and neuropsychological evaluations. The association of baseline variables with incident dementia was analyzed by using Cox proportional hazards models. All analyses controlled for age at baseline, gender, years of education, duration of PD, and total Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) motor score at baseline. Of 180 patients (mean age, 71.0 +/- 10.3 years), 52 (29%) became demented during a mean follow-up period of 3.6 +/- 2.2 years. Head injury risk ratio ([RR] 0.9; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.4-2.2; P = 0.9), hypertension (RR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.4-1.4, P = 0.3), and diabetes mellitus (RR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.3-2.3; P = 0.7) were not significantly associated with incident dementia in the Cox models. Patients who reported having ever smoked were at increased risk for the development of dementia compared with nonsmokers (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.9; P = 0.05). Current smoking was significantly associated with incident dementia (RR, 4.5; 95% CI, 1.2-16.4; P = 0.02), whereas past smoking approached significance (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 0.9-3.7; P = 0.07). Although an inverse association between smoking and PD has been reported in several studies, our study showed a positive association between smoking and dementia in the setting of PD. The association of smoking with incident dementia in PD deserves further study. SN - 0885-3185 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11921109/Do_risk_factors_for_Alzheimer's_disease_predict_dementia_in_Parkinson's_disease_An_exploratory_study_ L2 - https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.10086 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -