[Appearance of undiagnosed diabetes mellitus in the population of professionally active people in the urban areas].Pol Arch Med Wewn. 2001 Sep; 106(3):815-21.PA
Diabetes remains a great social and clinical problem. Therefore, there is a need to focus our efforts on prevention of the disease, especially of type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by accelerated development of atherosclerotic changes (macroangiopathy). Hyperglycaemia, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and hyperfibrinogenaemia also play an important role in the development of macroangiopathy. Hyperinsulinemia, which accompanies the visceral type of obesity, is characteristic of type 2 diabetes. Considering all the above mentioned findings, prevention of type 2 diabetes should be based on the population level, concentrating especially on the groups with increased risk of obesity and/or diabetes (early primary prevention). However, in the present conditions, it seems that screening studies can be conducted only in the groups with high risk of type 2 diabetes (late primary prevention). They allow for relatively early detection of disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism. The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes in the population of professionally active inhabitants in Pleszew. 2700 subjects, aged 35-65 years, entered the study. All patients claimed to be healthy. In the first phase of the study, the fasting capillary glycaemia was tested. Fasting blood glucose or oral glucose tolerance test was performed in all cases which fasting capillary glucose was higher then 5.5 mmol/l (100 mg/dl). The screening study revealed 91 cases with glycaemia higher than 6.8 mmol/l (3.4%). 387 subjects (14.3%) with glycaemia ranging from 5.5 to 6.8 mmol/l were qualified to perform the oral glucose tolerance test. Out of this group 138 persons did not come to the laboratory. Thus, the test was conducted in 249 causes (64.3%). The results obtained excluded another 197 subjects as no disturbances in the glucose metabolism were found. Based on the results of the oral glucose tolerance test 39 patients were diagnosed to have an impaired glucose tolerance (2 h glycaemia from 7.8 to 11.1 mmol/l) and in 13 cases diabetes was diagnosed (2 h glycaemia above 11.1 mmol/l). In conclusion, the screening study performed in professionally active adults aged > 35 years, who claimed to be healthy, clinically latent diabetes or impaired glucose tolerance was found in 5.3% cases. 92.8% patients with IGT or diabetes were obese or overweight (BMI > 25 kg/m2) and 32.4% had hypertension (RR > 140/90 mm Hg). In 64% of subjects the serum cholesterol concentration was higher than 5.2 mmol/l and in 18% subjects HDL cholesterol concentration was lower than 1.0 mmol/l and LDL cholesterol higher than 3.5 mmol/l. Elevated triglycerides concentration > 2.0 mmol/l was observed in 30%. In the group with newly diagnosed diabetes, mean age was 55.0 +/- 9.2 years. 27.9% had positive family history of diabetes, 26.5% were smokers, 44.1% were found to have disturbed lower limbs circulation and 30.9% had abnormal feeling of vibration, 7.8% patients with diabetes had symptoms of diabetic retinopathy and 20.1% had microalbuminuria. Body mass index (BMI) in newly diagnosed diabetic patients was 31.6 +/- 5.3 kg/m2 and waist to hip ratio (WHR) was 0.94 +/- 0.41 and indicated the visceral type of obesity. Mean fasting glycaemia was equal 7.26 +/- 1.93 mmol/l and mean HbA1c value was 6.2 +/- 0.7%. It exceeded the laboratory normal value in 17.6% of cases. In 91 patients with fasting glycaemia higher then 15.5 mmol/l insulinaemia was also assessed; its level was elevated in 10 patients. The project of study was prepared in 1996. However, in 1999 the new criteria for diagnosis and treatment of type 2 diabetes were established. The results of the performed study indicate that screening towards diabetes should be performed in subjects aged > 35 years with overweight or obesity and at least one additional risk factor of arteriosclerosis.