[Smoking as a risk factor for periodontitis].Ned Tijdschr Tandheelkd. 1999 Nov; 106(11):419-23.NT
Smokers have a higher susceptibility for periodontitis than non-smokers. Smoking is associated with more loss of attachment, progressive periodontal breakdown and also with a poor response to periodontal treatment. This is caused by the direct effect of nicotine on several factors that play a bacterial attack. These factors include the gingival vascularization and cellular defense mechanisms. The periodontal status of former smokers is intermediate to that of those who have never smoked and current smokers. Smoking cessation seems to have a beneficial effect on periodontal health.