Temporal segregation of 4-1BB versus CD28-mediated costimulation: 4-1BB ligand influences T cell numbers late in the primary response and regulates the size of the T cell memory response following influenza infection.J Immunol. 2002 Apr 15; 168(8):3777-85.JI
In this report, we demonstrate that CD28(-/-) mice are severely impaired in the initial expansion of D(b)/NP366-374-specific CD8 T cells in response to influenza virus infection, whereas 4-1BB ligand (4-1BBL)(-/-) mice show no defect in primary T cell expansion to influenza virus. In contrast, 4-1BBL(-/-) mice show a decrease in D(b)/NP366-374-specific T cells late in the primary response. Upon secondary challenge with influenza virus, 4-1BBL(-/-) mice show a decrease in the number of D(b)/NP366-374-specific T cells compared to wild-type mice such that the level of the CD8 T cell expansion during the in vivo secondary response is reduced to the level of a primary response, with concomitant reduction of CTL effector function. In contrast, Ab responses, as well as secondary CD4 T cell responses, to influenza are unaffected by 4-1BBL deficiency. Thus, CD28 is critical for initial T cell expansion, whereas 4-1BB/4-1BBL signaling affects T cell numbers much later in the response and is essential for the survival and/or responsiveness of the memory CD8 T cell pool.