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Parkinson's disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake.

Abstract

A reduced risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) among cigarette smokers has been observed consistently during the past 30 years. Recent evidence suggests that caffeine may also be protective. Findings are presented regarding associations of PD with smoking, caffeine intake, and alcohol consumption from a case-control study conducted in western Washington State in 1992-2000. Incident PD cases (n = 210) and controls (n = 347), frequency matched on gender and age were identified from enrollees of the Group Health Cooperative health maintenance organization. Exposure data were obtained by in-person questionnaires. Ever having smoked cigarettes was associated with a reduced risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 0.8). A stronger relation was found among current smokers (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.7) than among ex-smokers (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9), and there was an inverse gradient with pack-years smoked (trend p < 0.001). No associations were detected for coffee consumption or total caffeine intake or for alcohol consumption. However, reduced risks were observed for consumption of 2 cups/day or more of tea (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9) and two or more cola drinks/day (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3, 1.4). The associations for tea and cola drinks were not confounded by smoking or coffee consumption.

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  • Authors+Show Affiliations

    ,

    University of Washington, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Department of Environmental Health, Seattle, WA 98195, USA. checko@u.washington.edu

    , , , ,

    Source

    American journal of epidemiology 155:8 2002 Apr 15 pg 732-8

    MeSH

    Adult
    Aged
    Alcohol Drinking
    Caffeine
    Case-Control Studies
    Coffee
    Cola
    Female
    Humans
    Male
    Middle Aged
    Odds Ratio
    Parkinson Disease
    Parkinson Disease, Secondary
    Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors
    Population Surveillance
    Risk Assessment
    Risk Factors
    Smoking
    Tea
    Washington

    Pub Type(s)

    Journal Article
    Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

    Language

    eng

    PubMed ID

    11943691

    Citation

    Checkoway, Harvey, et al. "Parkinson's Disease Risks Associated With Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Caffeine Intake." American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 155, no. 8, 2002, pp. 732-8.
    Checkoway H, Powers K, Smith-Weller T, et al. Parkinson's disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake. Am J Epidemiol. 2002;155(8):732-8.
    Checkoway, H., Powers, K., Smith-Weller, T., Franklin, G. M., Longstreth, W. T., & Swanson, P. D. (2002). Parkinson's disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake. American Journal of Epidemiology, 155(8), pp. 732-8.
    Checkoway H, et al. Parkinson's Disease Risks Associated With Cigarette Smoking, Alcohol Consumption, and Caffeine Intake. Am J Epidemiol. 2002 Apr 15;155(8):732-8. PubMed PMID: 11943691.
    * Article titles in AMA citation format should be in sentence-case
    TY - JOUR T1 - Parkinson's disease risks associated with cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, and caffeine intake. AU - Checkoway,Harvey, AU - Powers,Karen, AU - Smith-Weller,Terri, AU - Franklin,Gary M, AU - Longstreth,W T,Jr AU - Swanson,Phillip D, PY - 2002/4/12/pubmed PY - 2002/4/25/medline PY - 2002/4/12/entrez SP - 732 EP - 8 JF - American journal of epidemiology JO - Am. J. Epidemiol. VL - 155 IS - 8 N2 - A reduced risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) among cigarette smokers has been observed consistently during the past 30 years. Recent evidence suggests that caffeine may also be protective. Findings are presented regarding associations of PD with smoking, caffeine intake, and alcohol consumption from a case-control study conducted in western Washington State in 1992-2000. Incident PD cases (n = 210) and controls (n = 347), frequency matched on gender and age were identified from enrollees of the Group Health Cooperative health maintenance organization. Exposure data were obtained by in-person questionnaires. Ever having smoked cigarettes was associated with a reduced risk of PD (odds ratio (OR) = 0.5, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.4, 0.8). A stronger relation was found among current smokers (OR = 0.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 0.7) than among ex-smokers (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.9), and there was an inverse gradient with pack-years smoked (trend p < 0.001). No associations were detected for coffee consumption or total caffeine intake or for alcohol consumption. However, reduced risks were observed for consumption of 2 cups/day or more of tea (OR = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.2, 0.9) and two or more cola drinks/day (OR = 0.6, 95% CI: 0.3, 1.4). The associations for tea and cola drinks were not confounded by smoking or coffee consumption. SN - 0002-9262 UR - https://www.unboundmedicine.com/medline/citation/11943691/Parkinson's_disease_risks_associated_with_cigarette_smoking_alcohol_consumption_and_caffeine_intake_ L2 - https://academic.oup.com/aje/article-lookup/doi/10.1093/aje/155.8.732 DB - PRIME DP - Unbound Medicine ER -