Oxidative stress in glial cultures: detection by DAF-2 fluorescence used as a tool to measure peroxynitrite rather than nitric oxide.Glia. 2002 Apr 15; 38(2):103-14.GLIA
4,5-diaminofluorescein diacetate (DAF-2DA) is widely used as a fluorescent probe to detect endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO). Recent reports that refer to the high sensitivity of DAF-2 toward NO prompted us to test its efficiency and specificity in a mixed murine primary glial culture model, in which the NO-synthesizing enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is expressed by stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma). Cultures were loaded with DAF-2DA and the fluorescence was measured using confocal microscopy. NO production in the cultures was determined using the ozone/chemiluminescence technique. Due to the extremely high photosensitivity of DAF-2, low laser intensities were used to avoid artifacts. No difference in DAF-2 fluorescence was observed in NO-producing cultures compared to control cultures, whereas the NO/peroxynitrite-sensitive dye 2,7-dihydrodichlorofluorescein (DCF) showed a significant fluorescence increase specifically in microglia cells. A detectable gain in fluorescence was seen when NO-containing buffer was added to the DAF-2DA-loaded cells with a minimum NO concentration at 7.7 microM. An additional gain of DAF-2 fluorescence was obtained when the cells were depleted of glutathione (GSH) with L-buthionine S,R-sulfoximine (BSO). Hence, we monitored the change in DAF-2 fluorescence intensity in the presence of NO and O(-*)(2) in a cell-free solution. The fluorescence due to NO was indeed larger when O(-*)(2) was added, implying a higher sensitivity of DAF-2 for peroxynitrite. Nevertheless, our results also indicate that measurement of DCF fluorescence is a better tool for monitoring intracellular changes in the levels of NO and/or peroxynitrite than DAF-2.