Serum concentration of S-100 protein in assessment of cognitive dysfunction after general anesthesia in different types of surgery.Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2002 Apr; 46(4):384-9.AA
S-100 protein serum concentration (S-100) serves as a marker of cerebral ischemia in cardiac surgery, head injury and stroke. In these circumstances S-100 corresponds well with the results of neuropsychological tests. The aim of the present study was to investigate the value of S-100 and neuron specific enolase (NSE) in reflecting postoperative cognitive deficit (POCD) after general surgical procedures.
One hundred and twenty patients undergoing vascular, trauma, urological or abdominal surgery were investigated. Serum values of S-100 and NSE were determined preoperatively and 0.5, 4, 18 and 36 h postoperatively. Neuropsychological tests for detecting POCD were performed preoperatively and on day 1, 3, and 6 after the operation. A decline of more than 10% in neuropsychological test results was regarded as POCD. Furthermore, we retrospectively compared the S-100 in patients with and without POCD in different types of surgery.
According to our definition, forty-eight patients had POCD (95% confidence interval: 37.5-58.5). These patients showed higher serum concentrations of S-100 (median 024 ng/ml; range 0.01-3.3 ng/ml) compared with those without POCD (n=69; median 0.14 ng/ml; range 0-1.34 ng/ml) 30 min postoperatively (P=0.01). Neuron specific enolase was unchanged during the course of the study. Differences of S-100 in patients with and without POCD were found in abdominal and vascular surgery but not in urological surgery.
When all patients are pooled, S-100 appears to be suitable in the assessment of incidence, course and outcome of cognitive deficits. We suspect that in some surgical procedures, such as urological surgery, S-100 appears to be of limited value in detecting POCD. Neuron specific enolase did not reflect neuropsychological dysfunction after noncardiac surgery.